International Journal of Research in Business and Social Science (2147- 4478) <p>IJRBS aims to provide a scientific base for scholars and researchers in the field of Business and Social Science. IJRBS is an interdisciplinary journal and publishes manuscripts online bi-monthly in English. Journal welcomes manuscripts on a broad range of disciplines including business analytics, business strategy, corporate management, organizational theory, finance, banking, accounting, marketing, human resources, innovation, leadership, organizational culture, international relations, international political economy, entrepreneurship, communication, learning &amp; higher education institutions, logistics, cross-cultural studies, ethnicity, conflict, sociology and so on. IJRBS is <em>open access</em> to the full text. 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Articles are licensed under an open access <strong>Creative Commons CC BY 4.0 license</strong>, meaning that anyone may download and read the paper for free. In addition, the article may be reused and quoted provided that the original published version is cited. These conditions allow for maximum use and exposure of the work, while ensuring that the authors receive proper credit.</p> Chronicling teacher’s experiences in the teaching of economics in the Covid-19 era <p style="font-weight: 400;"><em>Worldwide the emergence of Covid-19 brought about shock and many challenges in the education system. During the lockdown, schools were closed and that reduced contact time. Hence, almost 75 percent of a full school year of the curriculum was not covered. Approximately 400. 000 to 500. 000 learners dropped out of school and to date, the total number of drop-outs grown to 750.000 in South African schools. The study explored the teachers’ experiences in the teaching of Economics during the COVID-19pandemic. Underpinned by an interpretive paradigm, the study adopted a qualitative research approach and used a case study design. The samples comprised four township secondary schools in KwaZulu Natal (Durban). Using purposive sampling, two Economics teachers were sampled. Two instruments (semi-structured interviews and document review) were used as data collection tools. The findings revealed that Economics teachers experienced problems when teaching the subject during the pandemic. They have found it challenging to adapt to the new teaching methods like using technological tools. The lack of resources and Economics instructional materials exacerbated teachers’ difficulties. The findings revealed that poor attendance for teachers and learners was extraordinary. Notably, due to fears of being sick and infected, stigmatization within the schools prevailed, resulting in bad working relations. From the findings, the study recommends new teaching approaches to stabilize and restructure the curriculum and the retainment of some of the COVID-19regulations to ensure the effective teaching and learning of Economics.</em></p> Emmanuel Olusola Adu Sindiswa S. Zondo Copyright (c) 2022 Emmanuel Olusola Adu, Sindiswa S. Zondo 2022-11-13 2022-11-13 11 8 290 297 10.20525/ijrbs.v11i8.2078 Home dialect: A deficit towards enhanced additional language learning <p style="font-weight: 400;"><em>This paper aims to investigate whether home language teaching has an impact on enhanced additional language learning pedagogies. Participants, as data sources, were four university teachers purposely identified because of the task assigned to them, assessing student teachers in diverse schools during TP. Data for this inquiry was collected through semi-structured interviews. It was divulged as the main findings that (i) time constraints caused by consistent code-switching to acquaint with the unfamiliar medium, and (ii) learner dropout rate were challenges. This paper concludes that policies need to be redefined for enhanced language proficiency so that the ultimate end is learners who can communicate globally in a wide range of linguistic constituencies.</em></p> Bulelwa Makena Nomasomi Hilda Matiso Copyright (c) 2022 Bulelwa Makena, Nomasomi Hilda Matiso 2022-11-13 2022-11-13 11 8 298 303 10.20525/ijrbs.v11i8.2033 Can enabling entrepreneurship ecosystem improve commercialization of research in South African Higher Education Institutions? <p>An entrepreneurship ecosystem entails a community of practice that displays the characteristics of creativity and innovation, risk-taking, a strategist, and an active participant in identifying opportunities and making decisions among others in the organization. The ecosystem can be key when Higher Education Institutions are engaged in the transformation process of commercialization. The paper intends to explore whether an entrepreneurship ecosystem can stimulate the commercialization of the research process in a sustainable way. The qualitative thematic review methodology is employed to achieve this aim. The commercialization process is viewed in an entrepreneurship ecosystem by looking at the entrepreneurial institutions, stakeholders involved, and the sustainable business model. It is recommended that adopting an entrepreneurial ecosystem for commercialization of research in Higher Education Institutions can play a crucial role in building their structures to be economically active; addressing graduate unemployment; providing recovery strategies to reboot businesses in communities, especially after the COVID-19 pandemic; and position themselves as entrepreneurial institutions.</p> Thobeka Ncanywa Noluntu Dyantyi Copyright (c) 2022 Noluntu Dyantyi, Thobeka Ncanywa 2022-11-13 2022-11-13 11 8 304 311 10.20525/ijrbs.v11i8.2055 Rethinking social interaction in English first additional language classrooms during the post Covid-19 era <p style="font-weight: 400;"><em>Social interaction among peers and teachers in English First Additional Language (EFAL) classrooms is a more significant predictor of communicative competence, which is the goal of any language program. During the Covid-19, there was a decline in social interaction among learners due to the sudden change from onsite to remote teaching and learning. This paper aimed to explore the effects of lack of social interaction in EFAL classrooms and how it can be enhanced during the 'New Normal'. This study was underpinned by Long's (1981) Interaction Hypothesis Theory, which emphasizes social interaction as an essential component of language learning. This study adopted a qualitative approach embedded in an interpretive paradigm. Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were utilized to gather data from 32 conveniently selected participants. Data were analyzed through content analysis. The findings of this paper indicated that the effects of lack of social interaction were; the inability to solicit information from learners, lack of direct contact, and lack of immediate feedback, which were caused by the COVID-19 social distancing measures. This negatively affected the quality of education. Furthermore, the lack of interactive social activities in EFAL classrooms threatens the acquisition of language proficiency skills, which are key to academic literacy. Therefore, the authors recommend that language teachers receive training on how language lessons should be planned during blended learning to engage learners in interactive social activities like role-playing, storytelling, debates, and group discussions.</em></p> Nomasomi Hilda Matiso Bulelwa Makena Copyright (c) 2022 Nomasomi Hilda Matiso, Bulelwa Makena 2022-11-13 2022-11-13 11 8 312 320 10.20525/ijrbs.v11i8.2073 Exploring hybrid learning readiness and acceptance model using the extended TAM 3 and TPB approach: An empirical analysis <p style="font-weight: 400;"><em>Several universities are experimenting with hybrid-based learning systems to enter a new era after the COVID-19 pandemic. This study explores the model of student readiness and acceptance of the hybrid learning system. For this reason, this study was designed to use Hierarchical Component Models to build a hybrid learning readiness construct and combine it with two other major theories, namely extended TAM 3 and TPB. Data were collected from several logistics business students who had participated in hybrid learning. The findings in this study will prove how the readiness model we built can increase student acceptance of using the hybrid learning system.</em></p> Muhammad Ainul Fahmi Nenden Kostini Wawas Bangun Tegar Sunaryo Putra Copyright (c) 2022 Muhammad Ainul Fahmi, Nenden Kostini, Wawas Bangun Tegar Sunaryo Putra 2022-11-13 2022-11-13 11 8 321 334 10.20525/ijrbs.v11i8.2144 Utilization of student support services by undergraduate students in Nursing Education Institutions in South Africa <p style="font-weight: 400;"><em>This article aimed to investigate the availability and utilization of support services by undergraduate (UG) students in a nursing education institution in South Africa. The article employed a quantitative non-experimental descriptive design, using a self-administered questionnaire, to collect data from 118 participants selected through a non-probability random sampling method. The IBM SPSS software was utilized for data analysis, frequencies to illustrate the availability and utilization of student support services and Spearman’s correlation test to determine the relationship between variables. The results showed high awareness of 82.1% to 91.3% for the remedial programs, availability of lecturers for appointments, medical services, and compulsory orientation. Positive correlations were observed between service utilization, school type, place of origin, and parent employment status. The results reflected areas where student support can be improved to address this problem, from pre-enrolment to graduation. There is a need to improve awareness and utilization of the available student support programs through policy formulation and quality enhancement programs for impact and improvement.</em></p> Thembekile Purity Skakane-Masango Ntombifikile Gloria Mtshali Sandiso Ngcobo Copyright (c) 2022 Sandiso Ngcobo, Thembekile Purity Skakane-Masango, Ntombifikile Gloria Mtshali 2022-11-13 2022-11-13 11 8 335 343 10.20525/ijrbs.v11i8.2124 Enhanced digital learning strategies: A case of a rural senior secondary school <p style="font-weight: 400;"><em>As qualitative research, this paper aims to identify the impact of the necessary significance of enhanced digital learning strategies in rural senior secondary schooling. The main findings about improved digital learning strategies in rural schools are (i) limited availability of digital resources coupled with (i) motivation as a factor for teachers and learners as recipients of the schooling process. As a result, this paper concludes by outlining the necessary significance for teachers and learners to have upgraded skills for viability in the digital world. Therefore, this paper recommends that teachers require more professional support and development to transform teaching strategies.</em></p> Zameka Primrose Yengwayo Bulelwa Makena Copyright (c) 2022 Zameka Primrose Yengwayo, Bulelwa Makena 2022-11-13 2022-11-13 11 8 344 349 10.20525/ijrbs.v11i8.2045 The competence of novice nurses in providing health education to patients in South Africa <p style="font-weight: 400;"><em>Providing health education to patients is one of the competencies that nurses develop during training because of its critical role in managing lifestyle diseases. However, novice nurses’ ability to render health education once they are in the workplace is underreported. The study aimed to determine novice nurses' competence in giving patients health education. One hospital in the eThekwini district in KwaZulu Natal province of South Africa formed the setting of this study in which a quantitative, descriptive design was used. Hence, a questionnaire was utilized as a data-gathering tool among purposively sampled 125 nurses in supervisory roles. The data were statistically analyzed and presented in tables and figures. The results showed the respondents perceived the novice nurses as competent in planning and giving health education to patients. The novice nurses’ shortcoming was that less attention was paid to family involvement in giving health education and giving health education at the patient's level of understanding based on their educational level. The study contributes knowledge on the importance of the competence of novice nurses in giving health education as a strategy to tackle lifestyle diseases.</em></p> Thembekile Purity Skakane-Masango Sandiso Ngcobo Copyright (c) 2022 Sandiso Ngcobo, Thembekile Purity Skakane-Masango 2022-11-13 2022-11-13 11 8 350 359 10.20525/ijrbs.v11i8.2131 Practitioners’ challenges in the application of conceptions of mathematical knowledge in the foundation phase mathematics learning <p style="font-weight: 400;"><em>This study used a qualitative research design to examine the difficulties faced by ECD practitioners when applying their mathematical expertise to improve young children's arithmetic learning. Five practitioners were selected from among the five ECD centers using a purposive sampling method for the study. Semi-structured interview questions were employed to collect the data. The construction of themes and sub-themes resulted from analyzing the collected data thematically. According to the research's findings, early childhood educators face difficulties due to their limited grasp of mathematical language, lack of classroom environments conducive to children learning mathematics, and lack of experience incorporating play into their instruction. It was discovered that some practitioners struggled to get kids interested in learning the language since they don't know how to communicate and take a long time to educate because they don't pay attention in class and forget rapidly. Based on the findings of this research, there is a need for proper in-service training of the practitioners, as was the provision of adequate space for the ECD centers.</em></p> Neliswa Gqoli Chinedu Okeke Christian Ugwuanyi Copyright (c) 2022 Neliswa Gqoli, Chinedu Okeke, Christian Ugwuanyi 2022-11-13 2022-11-13 11 8 360 366 10.20525/ijrbs.v11i8.2053 Teaching learners with learning disabilities in inclusive classrooms: Challenges and possible solutions <p style="font-weight: 400;"><em>In 2001, the government of Lesotho increased access to schooling for all learners by incrementally eliminating school fees in primary schools. As a result, the admission of children with learning disabilities (LD) in primary schools also increased. Despite these important gains in the restructuring of the education system towards full inclusion during the past two decades, the national policy on teacher training and implementation and school- and classroom-based challenges, remain. Data for this qualitative study were generated through meetings with two groups of participants (Grade 1 teachers). Free-attitude interviews were also conducted in the meetings to conduct an in-depth investigation in the study and the generated data were analysed using conversation analysis. The study concludes that all identified challenges are surmountable and therefore require careful planning, dedicated effort and financial assistance to enable teachers to act as a driving force for inclusive schooling.</em></p> Seliane Masana Rantsie Kgothule Copyright (c) 2022 Rantsie Kgothule, Seliane Masana 2022-11-13 2022-11-13 11 8 367 375 10.20525/ijrbs.v11i8.2012 The effect of auditor rotation, fee, tenure and professional skepticism on audit quality <p style="font-weight: 400;"><em>This study aimed to analyze the effect of auditor rotation, audit fees, audit tenure, and professional skepticism on audit quality. The data collection method was carried out on 370 auditors who worked at the big 10 public accounting firms (KAP). The research data was in the form of a Likert scale questionnaire which was collected and analyzed using SPSS for windows ver. 22. The results of this study indicated that each independent variable had a simultaneous effect on audit quality. The auditor rotation variable significantly affected audit quality with an antagonistic relationship direction, so the first hypothesis was accepted. The audit fee variable had no significant effect on audit quality. The audit tenure variable had no significant effect on audit quality. The professional skepticism variable had a significant effect on audit quality. The professional skepticism variable had the highest beta coefficient among other variables, so the professional skepticism variable had the strongest and simultaneous effect on audit quality.</em></p> Prabowo Hadi Asmoro Erwin Saraswati Zaki Baridwan Copyright (c) 2022 Prabowo Hadi Asmoro, Erwin Saraswati, Zaki Baridwan 2022-11-13 2022-11-13 11 8 221 231 10.20525/ijrbs.v11i8.2130 Analysis of the effectiveness of tax incentives and company voluntary disclosure related to Covid-19 in the interim report on company value <p>This study examines the effect of tax incentives and corporate voluntary disclosure related to covid-19 on interim reports on firm value. This study tested the two independent variables using the dummy variable method. The provision of tax incentives related to Covid-19 is based on government policy. The company's voluntary disclosure of covid-19 in interim reports is based on notes to financial statements. The method used is <em>purposive sampling</em>. The number of samples obtained was 114 companies selected according to the research criteria in the 1st and 2nd quarter 2020 periods. This study used multiple regression analysis and panel data. The results show that the variable giving tax incentives related to Covid-19 negatively and significantly affects firm value. Meanwhile, the variable company voluntary disclosure related to covid-19 in the interim report shows unidirectional results, but has no effect on firm value.</p> Titania Auliansyah Nurul Aisyah Rachmawati Copyright (c) 2022 Titania Auliansyah, Nurul Aisyah Rachmawati 2022-11-13 2022-11-13 11 8 232 240 10.20525/ijrbs.v11i8.2122 The relationship between gender diversity and tax avoidance practices <p style="font-weight: 400;"><em>This study aims to identify the relationship between gender diversity and tax avoidance practices in some Southeast Asian countries mediated by corporate sustainability. Data were obtained from five Southeast Asian countries that have published annual reports from 2015 to 2021 through panel regression analysis. The result of this study showed the presence of a high number of boards of directors could suppress tax avoidance practices. Besides, it indicates that gender diversity affects tax avoidance, and after being mediated by corporate sustainability, it also shows an effect on tax avoidance. As a mediating variable, corporate sustainability mediates the relationship between gender diversity and tax avoidance. This literature provides new insights into the low percentage of female directors in company management and the absence of a law regulating the proportion of directors in company management. This study provides knowledge to the government and company management to improve accounting and tax regulations within and outside the company. Besides, this study also shows the relationship between gender diversity and corporate sustainability on tax avoidance practices and that the presence of female directors in the company can minimize tax avoidance and increase corporate sustainability.</em></p> <p> </p> Eva Budiana Hadri Kusuma Copyright (c) 2022 Eva Budiana, Hadri Kusuma 2022-11-13 2022-11-13 11 8 241 250 10.20525/ijrbs.v11i8.2176 Environmental concern in its role to mediate religiosity and green purchase intention to retail consumers, cafés, and restaurants <p style="font-weight: 400;"><em>Environmental awareness is essential to maintain the balance of ecosystems in the world. One of them is reducing the use of plastic bags in shopping, which can reduce plastic waste heaps. Environmental awareness relates to a person's religiosity, whereas religiosity is the belief to behave rightly and wrongly. Religiosity and environmental awareness also relate to the Green Purchase Intention because it contributes to consumers' increasing interest in not damaging the environment. This study aims to determine the influence of religiosity on environmental concern, the influence of religion on green purchase intention, and the influence of environmental concern on green purchase intention. This research was conducted with the criteria of respondents who have visited retail, cafes, and restaurants, who have campaigned against the green environment. This study was conducted in Central Java with 100 respondents using the WarpPls analysis tool. This research resulted in findings that (i) religiosity has a significant effect on Environmental Concern, (ii) Religiosity has a significant effect on Green Purchase Intention, and (iii) Environmental Concern has a significant effect on Green Purchase Intention. Retailers, cafes and restaurants need to pay more attention to the green environment component because high religiosity consumers have high green purchase intentions. Retailers, cafes and restaurants need to pay more attention to the green environment component because high religiosity consumers have high green purchase intentions. These components include increasing green products, green packaging, and green shopping bags.</em></p> <p> </p> Sari Listyorini Naili Farida Copyright (c) 2022 Sari Listyorini 2022-11-13 2022-11-13 11 8 251 257 10.20525/ijrbs.v11i8.2112 Strengthening the function of BNN in preventing and eradicating drug criminal actions in Indonesia <p style="font-weight: 400;"><em>Indonesia's welfare state has not been realized to date because of many challenges, obstacles, or threats. One of the many challenges is illegal circulation (without a permit) and drug abuse, which is increasingly massive and systematic. Drug crimes have been carried out systematically, massively, and continue with the target of thousands and even tens of thousands of Indonesian people becoming users and dealers every year. As a result of drugs, every year, 15,000 young people in Indonesia die from drugs. Even the data from the National Narcotics Agency (BNN) shows 40-50 people per day die from drugs, and losses due to drugs reach Rp 63.1 trillion annually. This paper aims to build a critical approach to the function of BNN in preventing and eradicating drug criminal actions in Indonesia.</em></p> Siprianus Edi Hardum Copyright (c) 2022 Siprianus Edi Hardum 2022-11-13 2022-11-13 11 8 258 263 10.20525/ijrbs.v11i8.2166 Religiosity and subjective norm in waqf intention <p style="font-weight: 400;">The optimal implementation of waqf is believed by some literature as a solution to various socio-economic problems of the community. However, the public's interest in waqf is lacking. This study aims to analyze the factors that can increase interest in waqf for the community. The population in this study was the people of Cirebon Regency, Indonesia, and 205 respondents were taken from the population. Data were collected by distributing questionnaires with a scale of 1-6. The data collected in this study were analyzed using the structural equation model method with Smart-PLS. The analysis results show that religiosity and attitude affect people's waqf intentions, but perceived behavioral control and subjective norms have no effect. On the other hand, this study found that awareness can affect religiosity and perceived behavioral control. Meanwhile, trust is also proven to have an effect on subjective norms and attitudes.</p> Badawi Badawi Muhammad Ridwan Andi Purnomo Yuni Siswanti Akhmad Syari’udin Muamar Nur Kholid Istyakara Muslichah Tania Avianda Gusman Copyright (c) 2022 Badawi Badawi, Muhammad Ridwan Andi Purnomo, Yuni Siswanti, Akhmad Syari’udin, Muamar Nur Kholid, Istyakara Muslichah, Tania Avianda Gusman 2022-11-13 2022-11-13 11 8 264 275 10.20525/ijrbs.v11i8.2120 The impact of vocational perception on entrepreneurial intention <p style="font-weight: 400;"><em>The market has experienced instability and uncertainty in recent decades, as a result of which entrepreneurship has gained greater visibility in the scientific community, as well as in politics and business. As a result of these findings, entrepreneurship education is at the top of the political agenda and has been a high-priority item worldwide for the past 15 years. Previous studies stated that entrepreneurs are fostered during their lifetime, and education is critical to building entrepreneurship in students' minds. Therefore, research is needed on the effect of vocational education on students' entrepreneurial intentions. The study results show that Vocational Perception (VP) showed a positive and significant influence in improving Entrepreneurial Intention (EI), especially in the Logistics Business Vocational Study Program at Padjadjaran University.</em></p> Muhammad Ainul Fahmi Nurillah Jamil Achmawati Novel Wawas Bangun Tegar Sunaryo Putra Copyright (c) 2022 Muhammad Ainul Fahmi, Nurillah Jamil Achmawati Novel, Wawas Bangun Tegar Sunaryo Putra 2022-11-13 2022-11-13 11 8 276 289 10.20525/ijrbs.v11i8.2193 The antecedents of repurchase intention in the Indonesian e-commerce marketplace mediating role of trust <div><em><span lang="EN-US">This study examines the effect of perceived ease of use and perceived security on repurchase intention mediated by the trust of e-commerce marketplace users in Samarinda City. This research was conducted on 150 users of the e-commerce marketplace. Data analysis uses partial least square (SEM-PLS) structural equation modeling with the Smart-PLS 3.0. The results showed that perceived ease of use significantly affected repurchase intention, but perceived security had no significant effect. This study also shows that trust successfully mediates the effect of perceived ease of use and perceived security on repurchase intention. From this research, it is suggested that e-commerce marketplace companies continue to innovate so that the trust felt by users increases. According to the findings of this study, e-commerce marketplace companies should continue to innovate to increase user trust.</span></em></div> Mutiyah Mappeaty Sudirman Siti Aisjah Fatchur Rohman Copyright (c) 2022 Mutiyah Mappeaty Sudirman, Siti Aisjah, Fatchur Rohman 2022-11-13 2022-11-13 11 8 01 10 10.20525/ijrbs.v11i8.2149 Why HR, corporate and marketing communication divisions should work together? <p style="font-weight: 400;"><em>The aim of this study is to find out what factors can increase employer branding and job pursuit intentions from one of the banks in Indonesia. The data in this study were distributed to 114 respondents and evaluated using the PLS-SEM analysis technique. This study found no effect between product brand and job pursuit intention, but this effect changed when using employer branding. Meanwhile, the corporate brand was found to affect job pursuit intention either through employer branding or not. This study proposes developing a model by incorporating TPB theory into the previous framework. The findings of this study reveal that individual control can determine job pursuit intention. We make several contributions, such as (1.) Re-examining the inconsistency of findings from previous studies; (2.) Development of the initial research framework by adding individual control factors (subjective norms and perceived behavioral control), which we adapted from the TPB theory; (3.) We map out how the three communication channel functions (HR Internal Communication, Corporate Communication, and Marketing Communication) can collaborate for the company to get employees with high skills to continue to innovate and become the best workplace. For this reason, this research will provide practical and academic contributions that can be used as a reference for Bank management and further research.</em></p> Fiola Rinaldi Wawas Bangun Tegar Sunaryo Putra Copyright (c) 2022 Fiola Rinaldi, Wawas Bangun Tegar Sunaryo Putra 2022-11-13 2022-11-13 11 8 11 23 10.20525/ijrbs.v11i8.2121 Influence of special treatment benefits on Generation Y students’ attitude towards retail point-based loyalty programmes <p style="font-weight: 400;"><em>The number of loyalty programmes has increased rapidly, becoming one of the most used marketing practices in the global retail market today. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether special treatment benefits influence Generation Y students’ attitudes towards retail point-based loyalty programmes and usage behaviour in South Africa by extending the theory of planned behaviour and adding unique treatment benefits and consumer satisfaction factors to propose a model for this study. The study employed a quantitative method, where a self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from a non-probability convenience sample of 388 students (aged 18 to 24 years), across two public higher education institutions’ campuses in the Gauteng province. The collected data was examined using descriptive statistics, exploratory factor analysis, reliability, correlation analysis multicollinearity and structural equation modelling (SEM). The study results indicate that subjective norms, unique treatment benefits and perceived behavioural control positively influence consumer satisfaction. The results also indicate that consumer satisfaction has a positive influence in shaping consumer attitudes towards retail point-based loyalty programmes which in turn influence usage behaviour of Generation Y students.</em></p> Jacinta Ana Neves Ephrem Habtemichael Redda Natasha de Klerk Copyright (c) 2022 Ephrem Habtemichael Redda 2022-11-13 2022-11-13 11 8 24 34 10.20525/ijrbs.v11i8.2028 Influence of service assurance on customer satisfaction across Kenyan insurance companies <p style="font-weight: 400;"><em>This study sought to determine the influence of service assurance on customer satisfaction in the insurance industry in Kenya. The latent variable assurance was measured using four manifest variables namely, Employees instill customer confidence; Customers feel safe to transact with the company; Employee Politeness and Provision of adequate information on service requested. A descriptive research design was adopted and a multi-stage sampling technique was used to sample 400 policyholders from 19 composite insurance companies in Kenya. Primary data was collected using a structured questionnaire. A pilot test was conducted to check the reliability and validity of the questionnaire. Data analysis was performed using inferential statistics. R-Gui was the leading statistical software. The study applied linear mixed-effect models of structural equation modeling (SEM) considering the multi-level structure of the data collected. Multi-level analysis was adopted to determine whether service assurance contributed to the variation in levels of customer satisfaction across insurance companies. A significant fixed effect coefficient estimate of 0.696 was established, implying that increasing the levels of Service Assurance as perceived by a customer by one unit would increase the level of Customer Satisfaction by 0.696. The study concluded that a client who perceives Service Assurance from their insurer is bound to have higher satisfaction than a customer who does not perceive it. Employee Assurance, however, was found not to significantly affect the variations in customer satisfaction across the insurance companies. The study recommended that insurance firms invest in service assurance to achieve maximum customer satisfaction.</em></p> Catherine Njoki Chege Copyright (c) 2022 Catherine Njoki Chege 2022-11-13 2022-11-13 11 8 35 49 10.20525/ijrbs.v11i8.1915 The mediation role of organizational strategy orientation on the effect of environmental uncertainty on the performance of travel agency companies <p style="font-weight: 400;"><em>The global pandemic has had a significant impact on the economic sector and the tourism sector and its supporting businesses, where many market segments of the tourism industry, such as hotels, restaurants, and travel agents, have reached a saturation point. Companies need to determine a clear strategy in the face of a dynamic change in the business environment to achieve the expected performance and maintain a sustainable competitive advantage. The discussion of strategies also focuses on the discussion on the strategic orientation of the organization. Research on the orientation of organizational strategies in the tourism industry, especially in the travel agent sector, has yet to be widely studied in depth, and how the impact of the pandemic on the sustainability of the performance of travel agent companies. This paper aims to examine the mediation role of the organization's strategic orientation on the influence of environmental uncertainty on the performance of travel agency companies. The respondents in this study were the manager of a travel agency company throughout Indonesia and we used a purposive sampling technique with a sample of 75 respondents. The method of collecting data is using a questionnaire and then the data is analyzed using PLS-SEM. The results showed that Technology Uncertainty affects Market Orientation &amp; Entrepreneurial Orientation, but only Entrepreneurial Orientation affects performance. It also showed that Market Orientation and Entrepreneurial Orientation fully mediate the Technology Uncertainty variable with Organizational Performance. Therefore, travel agent companies must be adaptive and innovative in facing technological changes that occur through the choice of organizational strategy orientation, Entrepreneurial Orientation and Market Orientation to encourage performance improvement.</em></p> Eko Purwanto Muhadjir Anwar Ayundha Evanthi Copyright (c) 2022 Eko Purwanto, Muhadjir Anwar, Ayundha Evanthi 2022-11-13 2022-11-13 11 8 50 58 10.20525/ijrbs.v11i8.2154 Antecedents of corporate entrepreneurship behaviours among SMEs and competencies of the employees <p style="font-weight: 400;"><em>This study explored the antecedents of corporate entrepreneurship behaviors among Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) and employees’ competencies. The area of the study was Sekondi-Takoradi Metropolis, Ghana. The study was a cross-sectional survey design with a concurrent triangulation mixed methods approach. The study's sample size was 440 subjects, made up of 400 employees and 40 owners/managers of SMEs in the Metropolis. The employees and owners/managers were selected using random and purposive sampling techniques. The quantitative data were analyzed using mean and standard deviation, while the qualitative data were analyzed manually using a thematic approach. The study revealed that both employees and owners/managers of SMEs in the Metropolis perceived the operational attributes, processes, or conditions within the firms and the external business environment that affects the firms and the staff in favorable terms. Also, employees of the various SMEs are given a meaningful opportunity to acquire, develop and nurture higher-level characteristics encompassing personality traits, skills, and knowledge, which can be seen as the real ability of the entrepreneur to perform a job successfully. It was recommended that owners/managers of the firms ensure an attractive and conducive climate for intrapreneurial behavior within their firms by encouraging their employees to believe in their abilities and always try something new. Employees could also be encouraged to be confident in their ability to handle and solve problems creatively. This behavior will go a long way to help the firms grow and become competitive.</em></p> Abigail Padi Wilberforce Owusu Ansah Mahmoud Abdulai Mahmoud Copyright (c) 2022 Abigail Padi; Wilberforce Owusu Ansah, Mahmoud Abdulai Mahmoud 2022-11-13 2022-11-13 11 8 59 72 10.20525/ijrbs.v11i8.2101 Intermediaries’ role in urban fresh fruits and vegetables supply chain in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania <p style="font-weight: 400;"><em>The study examines the supply chain for fresh fruits and vegetables in cities. In particular, the study determines the functions of intermediaries in the supply chain for fresh fruits and vegetables in urban settings. The study is qualitative with an ethnographic design. The study involved a sample of 92 participants obtained purposively. Data are obtained using In-Depth Interviews (IDIs), document reviews and researchers’ observations. Findings demonstrate that intermediaries typically facilitate transportation services that involve the collection, packing and handling facility selection, and delivery of fruits and vegetables. Secondly, intermediaries provide efficient storage services for storing fruits and vegetables and education about proper storage practices. Thirdly, intermediaries have involved value addition and improvement of the quality of fruits and vegetables through sorting, grading, gathering, inspection, branding, and packing. Fourthly, they execute marketing services and facilitate information flow and exchange. It is presented that to enhance intermediaries’ roles, there is a need to improve the road infrastructure networks and control corruption among unethical police officers. There is a great need to strengthen electricity. This will facilitate a reliable power supply that will enhance the easy storage of fruits and vegetables. Farmers and intermediaries need more education on quality, and financial assistance. This will support the continuum of the fresh fruits and vegetable supply chain.</em></p> Ibrahim Issa Emmanuel Munishi Kirumirah Mubarack Copyright (c) 2022 Ibrahim Issa, Emmanuel Munishi, Kirumirah Mubarack 2022-11-13 2022-11-13 11 8 73 82 10.20525/ijrbs.v11i8.2105 Influence of brand loyalty on consumer purchase behavior <p style="font-weight: 400;"><em>The subject of scientific research is the examination of the difference in brand loyalty factors according to the socio-demographic characteristics (age, education, income level) of confectionary consumers, as well as the examination of the connection between brand loyalty factors and brand loyalty of confectionary consumers in Serbia. 200 respondents completed the structured questionnaire. Determining the difference in brand loyalty factors according to socio-demographic characteristics of confectionary consumers was performed using the f test, while the correlation between the brand loyalty factors and brand loyalty was performed using Spearman's rank correlation as a non-parametric alternative to Pearson's correlation. It was determined that there is a significant difference in brand loyalty factors according to the age, education, and income level of confectionary consumers. There is also a statistically significant correlation between all brand loyalty factors and brand loyalty.</em></p> Lejla Catic Mersid Poturak Copyright (c) 2022 Lejla Catic, Mersid Poturak 2022-11-13 2022-11-13 11 8 83 91 10.20525/ijrbs.v11i8.2024 Product quality, reference group, convenience and its effect on the repurchase intentions of Janji Jiwa brand coffee <p style="font-weight: 400;"><em>Coffee is currently a part of people's lifestyles, so the coffee shop is one of the most promising businesses, especially among teenagers. This study uses product quality, reference group and convenience as exogenous variables that influence customers' repurchase intentions, with satisfaction as a mediation. The respondents in this study were millennial customers (Generations Z and Y) who buy Janji Jiwa brand coffee in the city of Surabaya, the determination of the number of samples in this study used a purposive sampling technique with a sample of 150 respondents. The method of collecting data is using a questionnaire; the data is analyzed using PLS-SEM. The results showed that product quality, reference group and convenience significantly affected customers' repurchase intentions. The product quality, reference group and convenience had a significant effect on satisfaction; satisfaction had a significant effect on repurchase intentions. Satisfaction can partially mediate the relationship between product quality, reference group, and convenience to customers' repurchase intentions.</em></p> Devina Dalilati Prabarini Sumiati Margono Setiawan Copyright (c) 2022 Devina Dalilati Prabarini, Sumiati, Margono Setiawan 2022-11-13 2022-11-13 11 8 92 101 10.20525/ijrbs.v11i8.2043 Effect of promotion, perceived usefulness, and perceived ease of use on interest in adopting e-wallet (Ovo And Dana) <p style="font-weight: 400;"><em>This study aims to determine the effect of promotional attractiveness, perception of benefits and ease of perception on the interest in using e-wallets. The population in this study is the entire developed village community in Sleman Regency. The number of samples used was as many as 150 respondents. The sampling method used is convenience sampling. Data collection using survey method through questionnaires distributed using google form. Data analysis techniques were </em><em><span lang="EN-US">implemented using multiple</span></em><em style="font-size: 0.875rem;"> linear regression analysis techniques. The multiple linear regression analysis results show that the attractiveness of promotions, the precept of benefits and the perception of convenience positively and significantly affect the interest in using e-wallets.</em></p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"> </p> Neni Meidawati Didied Fitrias Yunitasari Oktavina Diah Puspita Copyright (c) 2022 Neni Meidawati Didied, Fitrias Yunitasari , Oktavina Diah Puspita 2022-11-13 2022-11-13 11 8 191 201 10.20525/ijrbs.v11i8.2060 Evaluating the adoption of e-banking services by SMEs in the common monetary area <p style="font-weight: 400;"><em>There has been limited study from a southern-African perspective investigating factors that affect the adoption of e-banking specific to small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in developing African economies. To date, little is known about SME uptake of e-banking in the southern African common monetary area (CMA), comprising South Africa, Lesotho, Namibia, and Eswatini. This knowledge gap is problematic for banks in providing SME support for the transition to e-banking, given the current move by banks toward embracing digital strategies. This study focused on a single bank with a large footprint in the CMA, intending to add to the body of academic knowledge regarding the adoption of e-banking services by SMEs. It employed a qualitative methodology involving one-on-one, semi-structured, open-ended interviews with purposefully selected Bank X staff in each country of the CMA, using the literature reviewed to identify themes relevant to the proposed conceptual model. The conclusions of this research have led to a framework for e-banking adoption. A framework such as this may positively impact the profitability and sustainability of an SME by ensuring the adoption of e-banking services and utilization of available financial products to improve business opportunities via the e-banking channels of Bank X.</em></p> Gavin Moss Peta Thomas Copyright (c) 2022 Gavin Moss, Peta Thomas 2022-11-13 2022-11-13 11 8 202 212 10.20525/ijrbs.v11i8.2003 The impacts of social capital and financial literacy on business performance with financial access SMEs Batik Pamekasan Regency as mediation <p style="font-weight: 400;"><em>Apart from many studies related to Social Capital, Financial Literacy, Financial Access, and Financial Performance, there are still few studies that are associated between social capital and financial literacy with business performance that uses financial access as a mediation. This research was guided by the Theory of Behavioral Finance (TBF) and Dual-Process Theory (DPT). This study aimed to examine and analyze the effect of social capital and financial literacy on business performance through financial access for Batik SMEs in Pamekasan Regency. This study uses the Pamekasan Regency Batik SMEs as the object of research. This study uses a quantitative approach. The population in this study is Batik SMEs in Pameksan Regency. The sampling technique used is proportional sampling. The sample in this study is calculated using the </em><em>S</em><em>lovin formula to produce 135 respondents of SMEs Batik Pamekasan Regency. The data collection technique in this study was carried out by distributing questionnaires. The data analysis technique was carried out by SEM-PLS using 3.0 software. The results show an influence of social capital, financial literacy, and financial access on the business performance of Batik SMEs in Pamekasan Regency. Access to finance can mediate the influence between social capital and financial literacy on the business performance of Pamekasan Batik SMEs.</em></p> Fadhoilus Shofi Siti Aisjah Nanang Suryadi Copyright (c) 2022 Fadhoilus Shofi, Siti Aisjah, Nanang Suryadi 2022-11-13 2022-11-13 11 8 213 220 10.20525/ijrbs.v11i8.2146 What drives consumers to purchase green innovation product? Empirical evidence from Indonesian consumers <p style="font-weight: 400;"><em>This study investigates the determinants of behavioral intention to purchase a green product, such as relative advantage, compatibility, ease of use, and visibility of the attitude and its effect on behavioral intentions. This study employed a quantitative research method. A purposive sampling method was used to collect the data. A total of 300 respondents were successfully managed. The proposed hypotheses are tested using structural equation modeling (SEM). The study finds that relative advantage, compatibility, ease of use, and visibility positively affect attitudes. Furthermore, the attitude has a positive influence on behavioral intentions.</em></p> Raharjito Rakhmad Dirgantara Arif Hartono Copyright (c) 2022 Raharjito Rakhmad Dirgantara, Arif Hartono 2022-11-13 2022-11-13 11 8 376 386 10.20525/ijrbs.v11i8.2198 Walking the startups journey in Kenya: Documentation of successes and pitfalls between 2010-2020 <p style="font-weight: 400;"><em>Kenya’s Startup ecosystem has experienced tremendous growth over the last ten years. Further, Kenya’s startups have also been among the top-funded in the continent during the same period – attracting financing of between USD 300 million – over USD 3 billion. However, there is currently a lack of granular data guiding policies on the startup ecosystem in Kenya. Hence this Paper traces startup successes and pitfalls of the Ten years (2010-2020) Period in Kenya. The study utilized cross-sectional and longitudinal research designs. The target population was start-ups registered in the 47 Counties in Kenya. A total of 104 startups participated in the study. A mix of sampling techniques was used, namely cluster-stage, systematic, purposive, and snow-balling sampling techniques, to select the respondents for the study. Data were analyzed using Content analysis descriptive statistics were used for data analysis. The findings indicated that startup innovation hubs emerged in Nairobi in 2010 but offer time, which spurred the mushrooming of startups, seats, and co-working spaces with decentralization to significant towns in the country. The Kenyan startup ecosystem has experienced tremendous growth for the last two decades, growing from 10% in the 2000-2010 to 80% in 2010-2020. However, access to financing remains the biggest challenge for startups because of the risk associated with it, especially for early-stage startups. To strengthen the growth of the startup ecosystem, the government, through the statement of Kenya National Innovation Agency, should ensure the development of policies tailored towards startups. The national government should provide matching funds and establish an Inter-county collaboration framework to ensure skills transfer within and among the counties.</em></p> Stephen Muathe Paul Sang Lucy Kavinda Sammy Letema Samuel Maina Kenneth Chelule Copyright (c) 2022 Stephen Muathe, Paul Sang, Lucy Kavinda, Sammy Letema, Samuel Maina, Kenneth Chelule 2022-11-13 2022-11-13 11 8 387 400 10.20525/ijrbs.v11i8.2159 Improvement strategy for regional financial performance affecting macroeconomics in regency/city in Jambi province <p style="font-weight: 400;"><em>This research aims to determine the strategy for improving regional financial performance that impacts the macro-economy of regencies/cities in Jambi province. To analyze the research objectives was used a SWOT analysis mode. A secondary data analysis research method is used to obtain the data and information needed by the analytical model, which was equipped with an observation method. The results of this study conclude that the strategy for improving regional financial performance must be based on increasing regional revenue and regional expenditures through increasing regional economic growth, especially in the sub-sector and non-oil and gas sectors. The results of the study suggest increasing regional revenue and spending related to regional economic activities, increasing the acquisition of transfer funds from the central government (APBN), and increasing regional labor productivity so that it impacts the regional economy.</em></p> Faradilla Herlin M Rachmad R Zamzami Zamzami Muhammad Safri Syahmardi Yacob Copyright (c) 2022 Faradilla Herlin, M Rachmad R, Zamzami Zamzami, Muhammad Safri, Syahmardi Yacob 2022-11-13 2022-11-13 11 8 401 408 10.20525/ijrbs.v11i8.2169 Financial service access and agriculture commercialization of smallholder rice growers in Kilombero District <p style="font-weight: 400;"><em>The study was conducted in Tanzania to assess the effect of financial service access on the agricultural commercialization of smallholder rice growers in Kilombero under the moderating effect of institutional cultural cognition. Primary data were collected from 397 smallholder farmers, and after data cleaning, we remained with 358 responses subjected to regression analysis. Data were analyzed using hierarchical multiple regression analysis with the help of IBM SPSS software. The findings revealed that financial service access significantly positively affected commercialization. Also, the results confirm that institutional cultural cognition has a significant negative moderation effect on the relationship between financial inclusion and agriculture commercialization. The results suggest that reducing cultural cognition can increase financial service access. So, if the wrong perception and beliefs of the poor and marginalized society toward formal financial services can be reduced, then access to formal financial services will be increased, thus improving the level of agriculture commercialization. Also, we recommend that policymakers and the government set policies to reduce the cost of accessing financial services and enhance financial services availability.</em></p> Francis William Mmari Saganga Mussa Kapaya Copyright (c) 2022 Francis William Mmari, Saganga Mussa Kapaya 2022-11-13 2022-11-13 11 8 409 418 10.20525/ijrbs.v11i8.2127 The dispute settlement by the court institution between the foundation and its management: A judicial review <p style="font-weight: 400;"><em>Foundation legal entities have organs that carry out the functions of the foundation. The management of the foundation has responsibility for the legal entity of the foundation. This study aims to find out about disputes between foundations and foundation administrators in internal conflicts including the dismissal, replacement and appointment of foundation administrators and procedures for resolving disputes between foundations and foundation administrators through the general judiciary and state administration. If a board member is found to have acted detrimental to the foundation, then based on the decision of the supervisor's meeting, the board can be dismissed, this is a trigger for disputes that occur within the foundation. The settlement of this dispute can be resolved by filing a lawsuit by the management which is dismissed on the basis of unlawful acts committed by the foundation. This research is normative legal research with qualitative analysis. This study concludes disputes between foundations and foundation management are caused by the implementation of foundation activities that are not in accordance with applicable laws and regulations and the implementation of the foundation's articles of association and the household itself. Settlement of disputes between foundations and foundation administrators through judicial institutions is one alternative dispute resolution that can be used and is stated in the provisions concerning foundations, depending on the type of dispute, and the object of the dispute for dispute resolution before the court.</em></p> Ida Bagus Bayu Brahmantya I Nyoman Suyatna Dewa Gde Rudy Copyright (c) 2022 Ida Bagus Bayu Brahmantya, I Nyoman Suyatna, Dewa Gde Rudy 2022-11-13 2022-11-13 11 8 419 425 10.20525/ijrbs.v11i8.2175 The effect of transformational leadership on organizational commitment: Mediating role of job stress and job satisfaction <p style="font-weight: 400;"><em>This research aims to examine the impact of transformational leadership on organizational commitment as mediated by job stress and job satisfaction in construction service companies, PT Wijaya Karya (Persero) Tbk. This study uses explanatory research with a quantitative approach. The samples used in this study are 344 respondents of PT Wijaya Karya (Persero) Tbk’s employees. The purposive sampling method is the sampling technique in this study. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling partial least squares (SEM-PLS). The results of this study indicate that transformational leadership can increase organizational commitment, control job stress, and increase job satisfaction. The leader of companies needs to improve transformational leadership. It performs an essential role in increasing employee commitment. The results of this study also found that the mediation of job stress and job satisfaction was a partial mediation between transformational leadership and organizational commitment.</em></p> Anita Ramadani Rachmah Achmad Sudiro Himmiyatul Amanah Jiwa Juwita Copyright (c) 2022 Anita Ramadani Rachmah, Achmad Sudiro, Himmiyatul Amanah Jiwa Juwita 2022-11-13 2022-11-13 11 8 102 112 10.20525/ijrbs.v11i8.2134 Effects of skill acquisition on entrepreneurship development: General systematic review and progress in Ghana <p style="font-weight: 400;"><em>Over the years, governments in Ghana have provided various stimulus packages for local entrepreneurs to rejuvenate and expand their businesses while setting up new companies. The question is, how talented are the youth in entrepreneurship? This paper sought to review the extant literature on the impact of skill acquisition on entrepreneurship development and progress in Ghana. The Systematic Literature Review (SLR) approach was used to search for relevant journal articles from Scopus, Emerald Insight, and Google Scholar search engines. The search criteria were limited to journal articles with the keywords “skill acquisition”, “entrepreneurship,” and entrepreneurship development” from 1970 to 2020. Using the SLR technique, a total of 45 articles were identified, and 21 were relevant to the research focus. The review identified that skill acquisition significantly influences entrepreneurship development. It is recommended that entrepreneurship skill acquisition should be integrated in the Ghanaian education system right from the elementary level. Again, tertiary institutions in Ghana should have entrepreneurial centers for practical sessions. </em></p> Abigail Padi Copyright (c) 2022 Abigail Padi 2022-11-13 2022-11-13 11 8 113 127 10.20525/ijrbs.v11i7.2158 Do transformational leadership traits influence Indonesian employees' digital maturity? <p style="font-weight: 400;"><em>The digital age has changed the way businesses operate creating uncertainty; therefore, the right kind of leader needs to step in to steer the organization during this digital disruption. The objective of this study is to examine the influence of four (4) transformational leadership traits on Indonesian employees’ digital maturity. Using a quantitative approach, data was collected through online questionnaires spread to 203 IT managers who work in food and beverage, and automotive manufacturing in Indonesia. Descriptive statistics and multiple regression analysis were used to analyze the data. The result of this study shows that idealized influence and inspirational motivation have a positive influence on digital maturity, while individualized consideration and intellectual stimulation have no significant influence on digital maturity despite the latter being perceived as the most important transformational leadership trait to support digital maturity. The study that all four leadership traits have simultaneously influence 44.6% of digital maturity in food and beverage, and automotive manufacturing. Transformative leaders provide the right leadership in transforming the organization to be digitally mature through vision, adaptive culture, and motives for growth and development.</em></p> Mario Effendy Maria Jacinta Arquisola Copyright (c) 2022 Mario Effendy, Maria Jacinta Arquisola 2022-11-13 2022-11-13 11 8 128 140 10.20525/ijrbs.v11i8.2167 Examining the relationship between employment equity implementation and employee performance at the workplace: Evidence from a leading organisation in South Africa <p style="font-weight: 400;"><em>Employment equity has continued to occupy a centre stage in the field of human resource management in the current and forthcoming decades in various countries worldwide. It plays a critical role in promoting the elimination of unfair discrimination and consideration of people from previously disadvantaged groups at the workplace. The paper aims to establish the relationship between employment equity implementation and employee performance. The paper also examines the relationship between eliminating unfair discrimination and employee performance at the workplace. In addition, the paper also aims to evaluate the relationship between the maintenance of affirmative action and employee performance. This study adopted a descriptive research design and a quantitative research approach. The data employed regression analysis to test the hypotheses. Data was gathered from 172 employees in a leading organisation in South Africa. This paper's key findings revealed a positive relationship between employment equity implementation and employee performance. The statistical tests revealed a significant relationship between eliminating discrimination and improving employee performance in the workplace. However, the results of the statistical tests revealed an insignificant relationship between the maintenance of affirmative action and the improvement of employee performance at the workplace. In conclusion, organisations should ensure they eliminate unfair discrimination at all costs. This can improve employee performance.</em></p> Reward Utete Copyright (c) 2022 Reward Utete 2022-11-13 2022-11-13 11 8 141 152 10.20525/ijrbs.v11i8.2071 The characteristic of leader innovativeness, a case in Indonesian’s construction industry <p style="font-weight: 400;"><em>This research in the construction industry aims to understand the characteristics of Leader's Innovativeness. The construction industry, which is a project-based organization, has several unique criteria, including: geographical challenges at the project site, intense competition, the importance of innovation created in a short time. Leader innovation is generated in a leader-member exchange (LMX) between leaders and followers in the form of an exchange of ideas and knowledge (Nahapiet &amp; Ghoshal, 1998). This research is very important because innovation is an antecedent of performance, where according to Hobday (2000), leaders are known to have comprehensive general knowledge, while followers have deep specific knowledge. The higher the level of Leader's Innovativeness, the higher the quality of Innovation that will be applied to construction projects. This study takes the object of State-Owned Enterprises (BUMN) which are well-known in the construction sector in Indonesia which have branches in all corners of the region, so they are considered to represent the construction industry. This research uses descriptive statistical analysis method and involves a total of 121 projects spread throughout Indonesia at the time of data collection, with a participation rate of 97.52 percent. The results showed that the Leader's Innovativeness variable had a high level with a mean of 4.98, especially for Consideration on Risk &amp; QCDof 5.15 and Considerations on Health, Safety and Environmental Security (HSE) of 5.03.</em></p> Dedy Dewanto Copyright (c) 2022 Dedy Dewanto 2022-11-13 2022-11-13 11 8 153 165 10.20525/ijrbs.v11i8.2136 Transformational leadership and innovation in deposit taking SACCOs <p style="font-weight: 400;"><em>With the drive for enhanced financial inclusion of the population through encouraging savings and investments in a bid to spur economic growth and attain the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the critical role played by Savings and Credit Cooperative Societies (SACCOs) in developing countries in this endeavor cannot be gainsaid. It is worth noting that the extent to which such entities will contribute to economic development depends on the leadership paradigm utilized in guiding their operations and the extent to which they are innovative in their undertakings. This may further depend on the moderating effects of various factors, among them competitor orientation, especially in developing countries like Kenya, where the SACCO sector has grown tremendously with many deposit-taking SACCOs licensed to operate by the government. This study sought to establish the influence of transformational leadership on innovation in Deposit Taking SACCOs as moderated by competitor orientation in developing countries with a focus on Kenya. The study utilized descriptive and correlation research designs where 49 respondents, drawn from all the 7 Deposit-taking SACCOs in the Western region of Kenya, were targeted. Structured questionnaires were employed for data collection. The study used descriptive and inferential statistics to analyze data. Findings revealed that transformational leadership had a positive and significant influence on innovation. Further, competitor orientation had a positive but insignificant moderating effect on the relationship between transformational leadership and innovation. The study recommends that managers utilize transformational leadership practices in their undertakings to encourage innovation that ensures firm competitiveness. They should also focus on competitor orientation to support the firms’ innovative efforts.</em></p> Jackline Akoth Odero Robert K.W. Egessa Kelvin Mogere Machuki Joel Limonya Copyright (c) 2022 Jackline Akoth Odero , Robert K.W. Egessa, Kelvin Mogere Machuki, Joel Limonya 2022-11-13 2022-11-13 11 8 166 176 10.20525/ijrbs.v11i8.2082 The influence of internal marketing and organizational commitment on employee performance mediated by psychological capital <p style="font-weight: 400;"><em>This study examines and analyzes the influence of Internal Marketing and Organizational Commitment on Employee Performance mediated by Psychological Capital. The study is conducted on employees of a sugar factory (PT. Madubaru) located in Bantul, Yogyakarta, with a sample size of 60 respondents. Data analysis uses quantitative methods of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). The results show that; (1) Internal Marketing and Organizational Commitment owned by the company have a positive and significant influence on the Psychological Capital of employees who work in a factory. (2) Psychological Capital of company employees positively and significantly influences employee performance in the factory. (3) Psychological Capital on factory employees partially mediate Internal Marketing and Organizational Commitment to Employee Performance working at PT Madubaru, Yogyakarta.</em></p> Henryawan Sigit Muafi Muafi Copyright (c) 2022 Henryawan Sigit, Muafi Muafi 2022-11-13 2022-11-13 11 8 177 190 10.20525/ijrbs.v11i8.2179