International Journal of Research in Business and Social Science (2147- 4478) 2022-04-30T15:59:02+03:00 Umit Hacioglu Open Journal Systems <p>IJRBS aims to provide a scientific base for scholars and researchers in the field of Social Science. IJRBS is an interdisciplinary journal and publishes manuscripts online bi-monthly in English. Journal welcomes manuscripts on a broad range of disciplines including business analytics, business strategy, corporate management, organizational theory, finance, banking, accounting, marketing, human resources, innovation, leadership, organizational culture, international relations, international political economy, entrepreneurship, communication, learning &amp; Higher Education institutions, logistics, cross-cultural studies, ethnicity, conflict, sociology and so on. IJRBS is <em>open access</em> to the full text. The journal is <em>Indexed and Registered in <a href=";journalId=17383" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Index Copernicus (Journals Master List)</a>, <a title="A Sample Paper" href=";cbl=2032017" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ProQuest</a>, <a title="A Sample Paper" href=";cbl=2032017" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ProQuest(ABI/INFORM)</a>, <a href="">ProQuest Business Premium Collection</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DOAJ</a>, <a href="">Ulrich's</a>, <a href="">Mendeley</a>, </em><em><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">RePEc</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">EconPapers</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">IDEAS</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">BASE</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">EDIRC</a>, <a href=";viz-st:aggr=mean">Dimensions</a>, <a href="">Scope Database,</a> <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Scilit</a>, <a href="">Sherpa Romeo</a>, <a href=";q=International+Journal+of+Research+in+Business+and+Social+Science+(2147-4478)&amp;hl=tr&amp;as_sdt=0,5" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Google Scholar</a>, <a href=";sort=pub-date">Semantic Scholar</a>, <a href="">DRJI</a>, <a href=";type=AllFields">EconBiz,</a> <a href=";dblist=638&amp;fq=dt%3Aart+%3E+yr%3A2019&amp;qt=facet_yr%3A" target="_blank" rel="noopener">WorldCat</a>, <a href="">EuroPub</a>, <a href=";journal-id=1510">Asos Index</a>, <a href=";metadataPrefix=oai_dc">OAI</a>, <a href="">OAJI</a>, Rice Bibliography, AqEcon, and WAICENTO.</em></p> The effect of corporate governance on the individual work performance of employees 2022-04-30T15:57:09+03:00 Damianus Abun Frelyn B. Ranay Theogenia Magallanes Mary Joy Encarnacion <p style="font-weight: 400;"><em>The study aims to examine the effect of corporate governance on the individual work performance of employees of private higher education. To deepen the understanding of the concept of corporate governance and work performance, literature was reviewed. The study used a descriptive assessment and correlational research design and the population of the study was all employees of the Divine Word College of Laoag, Ilocos Norte. Questionnaires were used to gather the data. The study found that the corporate governance of the institution is considered high and the work performance is moderate. However, the Pearson r product moment analysis found that there is a significant correlation between corporate governance and the individual work performance of employees.</em></p> 2022-04-30T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Damianus Abun, Frelyn B. Ranay, Theogenia Magallanes, Mary Joy Encarnacion The influence of green transformational leadership and green attitude on green organisational citizenship behaviour mediated by emotional intelligence 2022-04-30T15:58:26+03:00 Arifah Nurwahdah Muafi Muafi <p style="font-weight: 400;"><em>This study aims to examine and analyse the effect of green transformational leadership and green attitude on green organisational citizenship behaviour mediated by emotional intelligence. This research was conducted at Batik Warna Alam SMES in Klaten, Central Java, with 118 respondents. Analysis of the data used is the quantitative method of Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) SMART-Partial Least Square (PLS) Software. This study indicates that: (1) There is a positive and significant effect between green transformational leadership on emotional intelligence. (2) there is a positive and significant effect between green attitude to green attitude (3) there is a positive and significant effect between emotional intelligence on green organisational citizenship behaviour. (4) there is a positive and significant effect between green transformational leadership on green organisational citizenship behaviour (5) there is a positive and significant effect between green attitude and green organisational citizenship behaviour (6) there is a positive and significant effect between green transformational leadership on green organisational citizenship behaviour mediated by emotional intelligence (7) there is a positive and significant effect between green attitude and green organisational citizenship behaviour mediated by emotional intelligence at Batik Warna Alam SMEs in Klaten, Central Java.</em></p> 2022-04-30T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Arifah , Muafi Muafi The effect of safety knowledge and workplace safety climate on safety performance with safety behavior as a mediator 2022-04-30T15:58:45+03:00 Pungki Sukmana Putra Risna Wijayanti Djumilah Hadiwidjojo <p style="font-weight: 400;"><em>This research examines the effect of safety knowledge and Workplace Safety Climate on safety performance mediated by worker safety behavior in the defense product manufacturing industry in Indonesia using PT Pindad as a research site. Occupational health and safety (K3) are one of the most important aspects of a company's production operations. No matter how good the quality or productivity of a company, it will be meaningless if there are problems regarding the value of K3 in its operations so that the K3 aspect cannot be ruled out. Safety knowledge of workers and creating a safety climate are able to achieve good safety performance. This study also measures the mediating effect of safety behavior in the causal relationship between safety knowledge and safety climate on safety performance. Questionnaires were distributed to 160 permanent employees. Then, Partial Least Squares are used to test the proposed hypothesis. The results showed that the safety knowledge variable was significantly related to the safety performance variable, with a count of 2.097, and the safety climate variable was significantly related to the safety performance variable, with an account of 2.243. The safety behavior variable mediates the effect of the safety knowledge variable on the safety performance variable, with a count of 2,607, and the safety behavior variable mediates the effect of the safety climate variable on the safety performance variable, with an account value of 2.094.</em></p> 2022-04-30T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Pungki Sukmana Putra, Risna Wijayanti, Djumilah Hadiwidjojo The impact of Islamic work ethics and transformational leadership on job performance with mediating role of intrinsic motivation 2022-04-30T15:57:05+03:00 M. Iqbal Nurfaizi, Muafi Muafi <p>This research examines and analyzes the impact of Islamic Work Ethics and Transformational Leadership on Job Performance with Mediating Role of Intrinsic Motivation. The method used in this research is the Quantitative method through questionnaire responses. 40 respondents are used as a sample of this research. The data analysis method of this research is <em>Structural Equation Model </em>(SEM) which utilize <em>Partial Least Square </em>(PLS). The results of the data analytics in this research are: (1) The Islamic Work Ethic do not have any positive significant impact on Job Performance. (2) Islamic Work Ethic do not have any positive significant impact on the Intrinsic Motivation. (3) Transformational Leadership has a positive significant impact on Job Performance. (4) Transformational Leadership has a positive significant impact on Intrinsic Motivation. (5) Intrinsic Motivation has a positive significant impact on Job Performance. (6) Intrinsic Motivation does not mediate the relations between Islamic Work Ethics and Job Performance. (7) Intrinsic Motivation mediates the relations between Transformational Leadership and Job Performance</p> 2022-04-30T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 M Iqbal Nurfaizi, Muafi Muafi The effect of employees’ computer and internet self-efficacy on job satisfaction 2022-04-30T15:58:17+03:00 Damianus Abun John Philip G. Javier Julius Ian B. Gamponia Theogenia Magallanes Fredolin P. Julian <p style="font-weight: 400;">The study aims to examine the effect of computer and internet self-efficacy on the job satisfaction of employees. To support and establish the theories of the study, literature was reviewed. The study used descriptive assessment and correlational research design and questionnaires were used to gather the data. The population of the study was all employees composed of teaching and non-teaching personnel. The study found that the computer and internet self-efficacy of employees was high and their job satisfaction. Based on Mult r regression analysis, it was found that taken together, computer and internet self-efficacy affects the job satisfaction of employees. Taken singly, it was the only computer that predicted the job satisfaction of employees. In other words, knowing both computers and the internet at the same time can affect employees’ capability to perform their work and job satisfaction.</p> 2022-04-30T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Damianus - Abun, John Philip G. Javier, Julius Ian B. Gamponia, Theogenia Magallanes, Fredolin P. Julian Personnel Reform: Perspectives on Civil Servants Promotion in Indonesia 2022-04-30T15:58:13+03:00 Syarif Ali Agus Kusmana <p style="font-weight: 400;"><em>This study aims to identify problems in the implementation of bureaucratic reform in the field of employment, especially civil servants’ promotion. This study is carried out using a qualitative approach with the case study method. The data collection technique is done using observation, documentation study, and interviews with two key informants. The data is then analyzed in several stages, namely data reduction, data display, and conclusion drawing. The findings indicate that there is an injustice and non-transparent phenomenon in civil servants’ promotion, especially in the initial promotion, promotion by extraordinary work performance, and promotion by graduation certificate. This condition has the potential to cause corruption, collusion, and nepotism, and might reduce employee performance in providing public service.</em></p> 2022-04-30T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Syarif Ali, Agus Kusmana How emotional labor affects job performance in hospitality employees 2022-04-30T15:57:31+03:00 Nairei Hori Ren-Feng Chao <p style="font-weight: 400;"><em>The study examines how surface acting and deep acting affect emotional exhaustion and job performance in the hotel industry and whether emotional intelligence has a moderating effect on the relationship. The study was conducted using a questionnaire survey, and the data were analyzed using a structural equation model. The main findings of the study demonstrate that surface acting has no effect on emotional exhaustion while deep acting has a negative effect on emotional exhaustion. This indicates that deep acting not only produces better service performance but also reduces emotional exhaustion. Moreover, surface acting and deep acting both have a positive effect on job performance, showing that both acting skills are all about demonstrating a better job performance at work. Furthermore, emotional intelligence has a moderating effect on the relationships between surface acting and job performance and deep acting and job performance, this indicates that employees with higher emotional intelligence are more likely to perform a more effective outcome of acting on job performance, regardless of whether it is surface acting or deep acting. But this phenomenon only occurs when employees are not experiencing emotional exhaustion. If employees are already experiencing emotional exhaustion, emotional intelligence does not have any moderation effect on job performance.</em></p> 2022-04-30T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Nairei Hori, Ren-Feng Chao The impact of meaningful work and work engagement on bank employees’ performance 2022-04-30T15:58:53+03:00 Halid Hasan Farika Nikmah Ellyn Eka Wahyu <p style="font-weight: 400;"><em>The pandemic caused by the outbreak of the Covid-19 virus had a significant impact on the nursing profession. It is known that nurses are one of the professions that are required to be ready to work, even to be at the forefront. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct a more in-depth analysis of the factors related to the performance of nurses, with the pandemic not causing the performance of nurses to decrease. This study aims to analyze the effect of meaningful work and work engagement on work performance, either partially or simultaneously. This research is a quantitative study using primary data from distributing questionnaires to 326 nurses on duty at hospitals that are referrals for patients exposed to Covid-19, in Malang Raya, East Java, Indonesia. Furthermore, the data in this study were analyzed using the regression method with Minitab software. The results of this study indicate that both partially and simultaneously meaningful work and work engagement affect the work performance of nurses. </em></p> 2022-04-30T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Halid Hasan, Farika Nikmah, Ellyn Eka Wahyu Passive subjective novation in credit arrangement 2022-04-30T15:58:56+03:00 Budi Her Utomo Suhariningsih Iwan Permadi Yuliati <p style="font-weight: 400;"><em>The legal vacuum regarding Passive Subjective Novation causes legal uncertainty and creates problems because there are no clear references in terms of understanding, implementing regulations, and standard operating procedures. The purpose of this research is to find out the right arrangement related to Passive Subjective Novation so that it can provide legal certainty and protection. This research is normative juridical research using an analytical approach and a conceptual approach as well as analysis techniques of grammatical interpretation, systematic interpretation and teleological interpretation to analyze primary, secondary and tertiary legal materials. The results of this study indicate that there are two ways of legal protection in the passive subjective Novation case, namely preventive and repressive legal protection. Preventive legal protection can be done by making a new statutory regulation or adding provisions to existing laws and regulations regarding passive subjective novation of credit agreements by using mortgage guarantees. Meanwhile, repressive legal protection can be carried out by giving sanctions to violators of the agreement that has been made related to passive subjective novation of credit agreements by using mortgage guarantees, namely in the form of compensation, fulfillment of achievements, and a combination of compensation and fulfillment of achievements.</em></p> 2022-04-30T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Budi Her Utomo, Suhariningsih, Iwan Permadi, Yuliati Accountability of the national land agency for the issuance of an overlapping certificate of land rights 2022-04-30T15:58:51+03:00 I Nyoman Renaldi Mahardika I Made Suwitra I Made Pria Dharsana <p style="font-weight: 400;"><em>The National Land Agency (BPN) as the agency in charge of land registration has an important role in preventing overlapping certificates. However, if there is an overlapping of certificates, BPN can only be a consultant and witness who is being questioned until the overlapping certificates can be issued. The purpose of this research is to find out the legal protection of ownership of land rights against the emergence of overlapping certificates. The research method used is empirical legal research. The analysis used is descriptive analysis, namely the data that has been collected is processed for the formulation of research conclusions. Then the research data were analyzed in depth. The results show that the legal protection of ownership of land rights against overlapping certificates is that the owner of the certificate can file a lawsuit because of the existence of the same certificate in the same field and provide evidence in court for the disputing parties. The authority of BPN is to carry out land administration activities starting from land collection to the issuance of certificates. In addition, BPN also acts as a mediator or witness when there is a certificate overlapping dispute because BPN only issues 3 certificates after the data is completely valid. BPN will wait for the far a court decision which has permanent legal force (inkrah) to subsequently cancel the issuance of the disputed certificate in court.</em></p> 2022-04-30T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 I Nyoman Renaldi Mahardika, I Made Suwitra, I Made Pria Dharsana The implementation of labor strike rights: Between freedom and order in Indonesia 2022-04-30T15:57:25+03:00 Adnan Hamid Andi Wahyuni Wibisana <p style="font-weight: 400;"><em>This research aims to investigate and know about the implementation of labor strike rights, between freedom and order in Indonesia. The methodology of this research is normative legal research using a qualitative descriptive approach, and data collection techniques using library research techniques. The results of the study indicate that a labor strike occurs when unjust labor practices occur in which workers/workers hold their jobs to protest against employers who are considered to have violated the applicable labor laws. Workers who strike because of unfair labor practices cannot be legally dismissed or replaced permanently and this is guaranteed by law in Indonesia. However, some efforts are needed to navigate the potential for a labor strike that can be carried out by improving the quality of working life in the company. Through the implementation of the quality of work-life, it is hoped that workers will feel involved in the workplace. If there is a problem at work, the workers/workers want to be heard by the company's leadership, and they want to know that there is a fair settlement process as regulated by the prevailing regulations and laws so that this is the best solution to prevent and deal with labors to strike rights.</em></p> 2022-04-30T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Adnan Hamid, Andi Wahyuni Wibisana The determinants of the quality of financial statements moderated by leadership style 2022-04-30T15:58:38+03:00 Eva Puspahani Sutrisno T Imam Subekti <p style="font-weight: 400;"><em>This study aims to examine the influence of employee competence, accounting information systems, and internal control systems on the quality of financial statements moderated by leadership style in State Universities. The research data was obtained through questionnaires to 128 financial management officials at 75 State Universities of the Ministry of Education and Culture. The data analysis method used SEM-PLS with the SmartPLS 3.0 application. The results of this study showed that employee competence, accounting information systems, and internal control systems had a positive effect on the quality of financial statements. Leadership style as a moderating variable was able to strengthen the influence of employee competence, and accounting information systems on the quality of financial statements and weaken the influence of the internal control system on the quality of financial statements.</em></p> 2022-04-30T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Eva Puspahani, Sutrisno T, Imam Subekti Transforming socio-economic development in QwaQwa community of South Africa 2022-04-30T15:57:11+03:00 Cias T Tsotetsi Bunmi Isaiah Omodan <p style="font-weight: 400;"><em>In the process of socio-economic development, the rural environment has witnessed various setbacks, mostly in agro-social and the socio-economic sustainability of the QwaQwa community of South Africa. Evidence exists from the literature, our observations and experience that sustainability in the rural economic development of the QwaQwa community is not equal and stable, which has exposed the youths of the community to crime and various anti-social activities such as drugging, drinking, gangsterism, raping, among others. Therefore, the asset-based community development approach was adopted to instigate stakeholders’ intention toward community emancipation. This was done within the lens of the transformative paradigm designed with the community-based participatory action research process. The research comprised key stakeholders such as community leaders, NGOs, and youths. A structured interview was used to elicit information from the selected participants. We used socio-thematic analysis to make sense of the data in order to understand the sociality of the people living within the spotted problem. The study revealed that the community is endowed with arable farming land and team spirit, but criminalities were found to challenge their development. In its quest for rural emancipation, the study also found out that the QwaQwa community needs empowerment programs in social and agricultural skill development.</em></p> 2022-04-30T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Cias T Tsotetsi, Bunmi Isaiah Omodan Understanding the impact of policy adherence and implementation on streams in the Umlazi River System 2022-04-30T15:57:22+03:00 Senzo Mpangase Ntokozo Amanda Xaba <p style="font-weight: 400;"><em>Although the national policy landscape is saturated with environmental and surface water management policies, there is limited evidence of successful policy implementation at a local level. This lack of policy adherence can have many economic, environmental, and public health effects in an area hence measure to improve adherence and implementation are essential. This study, therefore, looked at the lack of stream policy adherence and implementation by the government at Umlazi Township, which is the second biggest township in South Africa, with a population reported to be about half a million people. The study integrated three approaches: the Health Belief Model (HBM), Adaptive River Management, and Social-Ecological Model (SEM) to evaluate the scientific knowledge regarding river status, and uncertainty levels and finally evaluate the impact of policy implementation and evaluation on surface water quality management in the Umlazi area. Data was collected from local municipality workers and Sihlanzimvelo Initiative workers, as these two groups are primarily responsible for stream water management in the Umlazi Local. The data were thematically analyzed and revealed three main factors that contribute to the lack of policy adherence and implementation: citizens are not knowledgeable about on-stream management policy standards; policies on stream management are not implemented and enforced; and lastly, implementation and enforcement of these policies are perceived as difficult. Citizen environmental education and stream worker capacity building appear to be key in improving policy adherence and implementation in Umlazi streams.</em></p> 2022-04-30T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Senzo Mpangase, Ntokozo Amanda Xaba Beneficiaries’ attitudes towards resources withdrawal for selected donor-funded agriculture-related projects in Tanzania 2022-04-30T15:58:36+03:00 Jeremiah Mkomagi Devotha Mosha Athman Ahmad <p style="font-weight: 400;"><em>The study, using a comparative case study design, explored the attitude of local direct beneficiaries concerning the cessation of resources for two donor-funded agriculture-related projects in Tanzania from a Social Cognitive Theory perspective. Using a 5-point Likert Scale, data from 274 respondents were collected and analysed. Before data analysis, validity and reliability tests were performed and determined to be good. Descriptive statistics including percentages and frequencies were done. Additionally, a chi-square test was done to establish the association between variables. The findings show that local beneficiaries with higher self-efficacy and wider outcome expectancies had a positive attitude as opposed to their counterparts. Also, a positive significant relationship existed between self-efficacy and attitude (P&lt;0.01) and between outcome expectancies and attitudes (P&lt;0.05). Equipping local beneficiaries with the competencies needed to solve problems on their own and the continued functioning of VBAAs can aid local beneficiaries in maintaining a positive attitude post-project resources withdrawal. The study recommends that a transition phase is critical for project implementers to solidify benefits and benefit-enhancing behaviours. Also promoting community-based extension services by institutionalising VBAAs within the LGAs should be given a priority for enhancing sustainability.</em></p> 2022-04-30T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Jeremiah Mkomagi, Devotha Mosha, Athman Ahmad Barriers to the effective management of water streams in uMlazi township, KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa 2022-04-30T15:58:24+03:00 Ntokozo Amanda Xaba Stanley Onwubu <p style="font-weight: 400;"><em>South Africa </em><em>is currently facing a water crisis due to low rainfall, climate change, a large population and pollution in freshwater sources. Rivers and streams are polluted despite the legislation and management systems established by the government at the national, provincial, and local levels. </em><em>The aim of this study was to determine </em><em>the </em><em>perceive</em><em>d</em><em> barriers to </em><em>the</em><em> effective management of streams in uMlazi township in </em><em>KwaZulu-Natal province of </em><em>South Africa</em><em>. The study was conducted at a Durban solid waste office in Cator Manor and a community hall in uMlazi township.</em> <em>A </em><em>qualitative </em><em>case study design</em><em> was used</em><em>. Data was collected through </em><em>focus group discussions</em> <em>from</em><em> the two groups who were involved in the management of water streams in uMlazi township, namely </em><em>Sihlanzimvelo co-operatives and the section of </em><em>the </em><em>EThekwini Municipality </em><em>involved in stream management</em><em>. </em><em>Data were </em><em>recorded, transcribed, coded and thematically analyzed. Four main themes were identified, which revealed that the current barriers to effective stream management were related to attitudes and behavior of the communities and the EThekwini Municipality's working conditions and management </em><em>practices.</em><em> The</em><em> study established that </em><em>to manage the streams effectively, all stakeholders in communities should be actively involved, and for that to be possible, they should all be educated about the importance of streams and the environment in general. Environmental education was found to be central in promoting accountability and civility in engagements amongst stakeholders, to ensure that there were healthier streams and river systems and an eco-friendly future was secured.</em></p> 2022-04-30T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Ntokozo Amanda Xaba, Stanley Onwubu Masters and doctorate student experiences of service delivery at public universities in Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa 2022-04-30T15:59:02+03:00 Samkele Konyana Stanley Chibuzor Onwubu Mokgadi Ursula Makgobole <p style="font-weight: 400;">The high student attrition at the masters' and doctorate levels requires universities to be customer-oriented, and flexible in their capacity to deliver higher value to mature students whose needs and expectations are high. Therefore, this study aims to assess student experience and service delivery levels that academic departments provide postgraduate students at public universities in KwaZulu-Natal. An empirical study was conducted amongst masters’ and doctorate students at a university of technology, a traditional university, and a comprehensive university. The study involved a survey questionnaire with a five-point Likert scale and included seven service delivery dimensions which respondents were to rank accordingly. Data were subjected to descriptive and inferential statistics and the factors that emerged from factor analysis were tested for reliability and validity by conducting Cronbach's alpha. The results show that postgraduate students are university customers and therefore expect courtesy and professionalism in the delivery of postgraduate programmes. The results further suggest that retention capabilities exist for the traditional university compared to the other types of universities. Students seem to be moderately satisfied with the quality of academic services offered by universities. Service delivery experience among students appears to vary across universities. Universities should take cognisance of the gaps and attempt to be more customer-oriented to ensure the needs and expectations of graduate students are met. The findings of the study may serve as guidelines for a follow-up qualitative study to establish the specific areas where students were not satisfied.</p> 2022-04-30T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Samkele Konyana Analysis of Bali cattle business income on different scales in Tiworo Tengah District, Indonesia 2022-04-30T15:57:28+03:00 Hairil A. Hadini Musram Abadi La Ode Arsad Sani La Ode Muh Munadi Surahmanto Wegig Sukoco Anggoro <p style="font-weight: 400;"><em>Bali cattle farming business in Indonesia is generally maintained by rural communities with the application of improvised technology in both feed management and maintenance systems. The beef cattle farming business is said to be successful if it can increase income, meet the needs of the farmer's life, and know the costs incurred by the breeder. This study aims to analyze the income of Bali cattle businesses with different business scales in Tiworo Tengah District, West Muna Regency using a survey method by taking 40 respondents from Bali cattle farmers spread over 8 villages in Tiworo Tengah District. The data collected consists of primary data and secondary data, then analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively using income analysis. The results show that the average income received by small-scale farmers is IDR 695.827/month, medium-scale farmers are IDR 1.439.440/month, and large-scale farmers are IDR 1.768.515/month.</em></p> 2022-04-30T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Hairil A. Hadini, Musram Abadi, La Ode Arsad Sani, La Ode Muh Munadi, Surahmanto, Wegig Sukoco Anggoro Do customer loyalty programs enhance customers buying behaviour in supermarkets in Kenya? 2022-04-30T15:58:59+03:00 Lucy Ongaya Lawrence Stephen Makau Muathe <p style="font-weight: 400;"><em>This study aims to examine the effect of customer loyalty programs on customer buying behavior in supermarkets in Nairobi City County, Kenya. Specifically, the study sought to establish the effect of reward programs, point accumulation programs, and reward frequency programs on customer buying behavior. A descriptive research design was employed, and questionnaires and interview guides were used to collect data. A sample of 384 respondents was selected from a target population of 985,016 using the non-probabilistic purposive sampling method. Findings indicate that consumers’ level of preference for the particular supermarket loyalty programs was high in specific supermarkets. It was also found that points’ redemption rates differed among the supermarkets. The majority of the supermarkets allowed customers to redeem their points at any time and customers preferred benefits connected to frequent visits and fast points reimbursement based on the reward method used. The study concluded that point cumulative program and reward method program positively and significantly affects consumer buying behavior but reward frequency negatively and significantly affected customer buying behavior. The study recommended that the point accumulation program should be made easier for customers by the marketing departments in the supermarkets.</em></p> 2022-04-30T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Lucy Ongaya Lawrence; Stephen Makau Muathe Sensitivity analysis of the impact of Covid-19 on corporate sustainability and company performance 2022-04-30T15:58:47+03:00 Ajeigbe Kola Benson Ganda Fortune <p style="font-weight: 400;"><em>The study examined the sensitivity analysis of the impact of Covid-19 on Corporate Sustainability and Company Performance of South African listed companies. The study employed secondary data retrieved from the annual reports of the selected companies. Stakeholder Theory and the Traditional Theory of Economics and Finance from the theoretical foundation of this study. Data retrieved from 40 companies for the period 2010 -2021 was analyzed using panel fully modified ordinary least squares (FMOLS) and dynamic ordinary least square (DOLS) methods, representing all sectors with the help of a convenience sampling method. Findings revealed a strong relationship between corporate sustainability performance and company performance with other explanatory variables. This study also implied that the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic was so sensitive on South African companies and companies must pay strong attention to recovery strategies suggested to reduce the severity of the impact on them and ensure a quick recovery. </em></p> 2022-04-30T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Ajeigbe Kola Benson, Ganda Fortune Market orientation and innovation on corporate performance 2022-04-30T15:58:41+03:00 Irwan Poerwanto Ananda Sabil Hussein Sri Palupi Prabandari <p style="font-weight: 400;"><em>This study aims to examine and analyze the influence of market orientation on corporate performance with exploration innovation and exploitative innovation as mediation in SMEs. 85 respondents were used as samples from food and beverage sector SMEs at Sentra Siola Surabaya. Purposive sampling was used as the sampling method. Data analysis in this study used Structural Equation Modeling - Partial Least Square (SEM PLS). The result indicates that market orientation has a significant effect on exploration innovation, exploitative innovation, and corporate performance. Exploration innovation has a significant effect on corporate performance; therefore, exploration innovation partially mediates the effect of market orientation on corporate performance. However exploitative innovation was found to have no effect on corporate performance. Changes in external factors, primarily due to the COVID-19 pandemic, are seen as being able to cause a paradigm shift on the importance of a long-term orientation compared to a short-term orientation.</em></p> 2022-04-30T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Irwan Poerwanto, Ananda Sabil Hussein, Sri Palupi Prabandari The influence of resource flexibility and product complexity on operational performance moderated by employee competence in Indonesian defense industry 2022-04-30T15:57:18+03:00 Himawan Hatmanto Agung Yuniarinto Surachman <p style="font-weight: 400;"><em>Operational performance reflects the company’s operating performance in terms of waste reduction, product quality improvement, and product delivery. This study examines the effect of resource flexibility and product complexity on operational performance moderated by employee competence in the Indonesian defense industry at PT. Pindad (Persero) Turen, Malang. 194 employees who work in the production function are sampled in this research. The data analysis model used is a structural equation model with a Partial Least Square approach using SmartPLS 3.0 software. The results show that resource flexibility has a positive and significant effect on operational performance, product complexity does not affect operational performance, and employee competence has a positive and significant effect on operational performance. The moderation test shows that employee competence strengthens the effect of resource flexibility on operational performance and employee competence does not weaken or strengthen the effect of product complexity on operational performance.</em></p> 2022-04-30T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Himawan Hatmanto, Agung Yuniarinto, Surachman The effect of advertising relevance on avoidance with advertising engagement 2022-04-30T15:57:35+03:00 Atma Citalada Atim Djazuli Sri Palupi Prabandari <p style="font-weight: 400;"><em>Despite many studies on online advertising and its effects, there are still few studies that try to examine the avoidance of advertising by a person. However, the number of advertisements that appears will make someone feel annoyed and trigger avoidance behavior towards the advertisement they see. Referring to psychological reactance theory, advertising can become a nuisance when it is considered unrelated and interferes with a person's freedom to access media which in turn can trigger avoidance behavior in an effort to regain his freedom. Using psychological reactance theory, the aim of this research was to further investigate the relationship between advertising linkage and advertising avoidance behavior mediated by advertising distraction and advertising engagement variables. This research uses Instagram as the object of research. Instagram was chosen because it is a social media whose number of users is growing every year and this is what triggers many marketers to place ads on Instagram. Respondents in this research were Instagram users who had avoided advertisements that appeared on their accounts, determining the number of samples in this research using a purposive sampling technique with a sample of 160 respondents. The method of collecting data is using a questionnaire, the data is analyzed using PLS-SEM.</em></p> 2022-04-30T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Atma Citalada, Atim Djazuli, Sri Palupi Prabandari Global value chain: An empirical investigation of Bangladesh’s garments and textile industry 2022-04-30T15:58:20+03:00 Md. Sumon Hossain Jaap Van Baars <p style="font-weight: 400;"><em>Bangladesh is the second-largest garments and textile exporting country in the world and has more than 80 percent of its total export earnings from this sector. Despite it playing a significant role in policymaking in developing countries like Bangladesh, there is a gap in study regarding the effect of participation and position of garments and textile industry in the global value chain (GVC). This paper empirically analyses the participation and position of Bangladesh’s garments and textile industry in the context of the GVC by using the multiregional Input-Output table EORA Global MIRO. We found that this country has a comparative edge in terms of low-cost production and specialization and makes a significant contribution to the global garments industry, but it has not been able to fully integrate into the global production network. We also found that Bangladesh's garments and textile industry have higher backward participation than forwarding participation and occupy a downstream position in GVC. However, the downstream phases contribute to a large percentage of this country's trade. The findings of the study suggest that enhancing the GVC participation of Bangladesh’s garments and textile industry may have a substantial positive impact on the local industry. To boost the capability, there must be local requirements, such as adequate backward linkage for the manufacturing process, research and development for innovation, fewer regulatory restrictions, a mature money market in international operation, and a favorable environment for foreign investors.</em></p> 2022-04-30T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Md. Sumon Hossain, Jaap Van Baars The effectiveness of using the digital wallet OVO in the Jakarta, Indonesia 2022-04-30T15:57:14+03:00 Zulhawati Meiliyah Ariani Budi Harsono <p style="font-weight: 400;"><em>This study aims to determine whether financial ability, promotion, benefit and security are the effects of using OVO digital wallets in the Pesanggrahan area, South Jakarta, Indonesia. The sample in this study amounted to 105 users of Ovo electronic money in the Pesanggrahan area of South Jakarta, Indonesia. Sample selection was done by the random sampling method. The data used in this study is primary data, namely questionnaires distributed to respondents. This analysis method uses descriptive statistical tests, data quality tests, classical assumption tests, data analysis tests, and model suitability tests using the SPSS program. The results of this study indicate that Financial Ability does not have a positive and significant effect, Promotion has a positive and significant effect, Usefulness has a positive and significant effect and Transaction Security has a positive and significant effect on the effectiveness of using OVO digital wallets in the Pesanggrahan area, South Jakarta, Indonesia.</em></p> 2022-04-30T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Zulhawati, Meiliyah Ariani, Budi Harsono Users’ satisfaction with e-government services 2022-04-30T15:58:32+03:00 Aye Aye Myint <p style="font-weight: 400;"><em>This study aims to investigate users’ satisfaction with e-Government services of Myanmar through a study of a specific e-Government service, the Myanmar Companies Online registration (MyCO) system. The MyCO system was chosen for this study because it is the initiative well-developed e-Government service in Myanmar. On the other hand, the company registration authority of Myanmar, the Directorate of Investment and Company Administration (DICA), has continuously made every endeavor to optimize responsive its e-Government services, after almost four years from the launching date of the MyCO system, systematically analyzing for optimizing the system still remains to research. In order to track public perception of the system, an online survey was conducted. The questionnaires were designed based on the Technology Acceptance Model in the fields of customer satisfaction consisting mainly of three main factors, perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness and perceived risk. Questionnaires were collected and analyzed with the respondents identifying themselves as having used the MyCO system. Notwithstanding the overall 79% of respondents were very satisfied and 20% were satisfied to some extent, payment transaction issues and some technical challenges are still remained in the system to be addressed to become a better user-centric public service. This study will support a number of contributions to find out the gap between e-Government services implementation and how publics’ expectations of e-Government services. The result of this study will provide awareness to DICA to improve more efficiency and effectiveness in implementing best practices in the provision of user-centric public services based on the public’s needs and demands.</em></p> 2022-04-30T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Aye Aye Myint Implementation of the new higher education curriculum in Indonesia: perceptions and participation in the process 2022-04-30T15:58:28+03:00 Erna Handayani Sri Wahyuni Wanda Nugroho Yanuarto <p><em>According to the objectives of this study, perceptions, and participation of the user community in responding to policy "Independent Learning Program – Independent Campus (MBKM)" will be determined. The quantitative approach used in this study was centered on the survey as the research design chosen for the study. It surveyed 593 members of the user community, who included lecturers, students, stakeholders, and parents, among other people. The structural equation model statistical analysis is used for data analysis. On the other hand, perceptions and participation are variables that have been observed. In this study, the relationship between perception and participation among the user community in responding to the policy of the MBKM program in Indonesia was investigated using quantitative methods. The following research procedures were used: (1) Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) was used to determine the factor analysis of each construct; perceptions and participation; (2) Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was used to construct the instrument in order to obtain a fit model; and (3) Structural Equation Model (SEM) was used to determine the relationship between perceptions and user participation. The fit index test was performed using the following model criteria: Chi-Square, Chi-Square/df, TLI, CFI, NFI, and RMSEA. In addition, the following are the findings of this study: (1) The EFA analysis revealed that the perceptions construct contained three valid sub-constructs, while the user participation constructs contained four valid sub-constructs; (2) The CFA analysis revealed that there was a strong link between the three sub-constructs of perceptions and the four valid sub-constructs of user participation (benefits, convenience, and beliefs; 0,943; 0,970; 0,870 respectively).</em></p> 2022-04-30T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Erna Handayani, Sri Wahyuni, Wanda Nugroho Yanuarto