Influence of participative and achievement oriented leadership styles on employee job satisfaction in commercial banks in Kenya


Participative Leadership
Achievement-Oriented Leadership
Path-Goal Leadership Styles
Employee Job Satisfaction

How to Cite

Mwaisaka, D., K’Aol, G., & Ouma, C. (2019). Influence of participative and achievement oriented leadership styles on employee job satisfaction in commercial banks in Kenya. International Journal of Research in Business and Social Science (2147- 4478), 8(5), 42-53.


The purpose of the study was to examine the influence of participative and achievement-oriented leadership styles on employee job satisfaction in commercial banks in Kenya. This study adopted the positivism research philosophy while building a descriptive correlational research design.  The target population of the study was 15,030 employees in all the 43 commercial banks licensed to operate in Kenya as of June 2018. , the study drew a sample size of 386 employees reporting to middle-level managers, using a stratified sampling technique. Data were collected utilizing a questionnaire and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics — statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20. The results of the study showed that a participative leadership style and achievement-oriented leadership styles positively and significantly predicted employee job satisfaction. From the results of the regression analysis after moderation, it was revealed that environmental contingency factors significantly moderated the relationship between path-goal leadership style and employee job satisfaction.


Abend, G. (2013). The Meaning of Theory: Sociological Theory. San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler Publisher Retrieved from

Akhigbe, J. O., Finelady, M. A., & Felix, O. O. (2014). Transactional Leadership Style and Employee Satisfaction in Nigerian Banking Sector. European Journal of Business and Management, Vol. 6(26), 15-23.

Alanazi, E. (2013). Overview of path-goal leadership theory. Sains Humanika 64 (2), 1-2.

Anitha, M. (2014). Determinants of employee engagement and their impact on employee performance. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 63(3), 308-323.

Ashraf MA, Ahmad MSA, Ashraf M, Al-Qurainy F, Ashraf MY (2012). Alleviation of waterlogging stress in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) by exogenous application of potassium in soil and as a foliar spray. Crop Pasture Sci., 62(1): 25-38.

Aziri B. (2016). Job satisfaction: A Literature Review. Management Research And Practice, 3 (4), 77-86.

Bolman, & Deal. (2013). Leadership and Management Model. European Journal of Business and Strategic Management, 1, (1), 1-6.

Çelik, S., Dedeoğlu, B. B., & Inanir, A. (2015). Relationship between ethical leadership, organizational commitment and job satisfaction at hotel organizations. Ege Akademik Bakış Dergisi, 15(1), 53-64.

Dubrin, A. (2015). Leadership: Research findings, practice, and skills. New York: Nelson Education Publishers.

Elangovan, A. R. (2017). Causal ordering of stress, satisfaction and commitment, and intention to quit: a structural equations analysis. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 22(4), 159-165.

Famakin, I., & Abisuga A. (2016). Effect of path-goal leadership styles on the commitment of employees on construction projects. International Journal of Construction Management, 16 (2)10-11.

Ganguly R. (2015). Composition of work groups, Quality of work life and job satisfaction of employees in USA. Asian Journal of Management Research, 1 (8), 2229 – 3795.

Gustafsson, J., & Hornay. P. (2014). Leadership Driving Successful Implementation of Continuous Improvement Programs- A Case Study Using the Path Goal Model. Master Thesis, Technology Management-Nr 282/2015, University of Sweden.

Harter, J. K., Schmidt, F. L., & Hayes, T. L. (2012). Business-unit-level relationship between employee satisfaction, employee engagement, and business outcomes: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 8 (5), 268–279.

House, R. (1971). A Path-Goal Theory of Leader Effectiveness. Administrative Science Quarterly, 16, 321-328. 10.2307/2391905

House, R. J., & Mitchell, T. R. (1974). Path-goal theory of leadership. Journal of Contemporary Business, Journal of Humanities, 3 (1) l–97.

Javed, H. A., Jaffari, A. A., & Rahim, M. (2014). Leadership styles and employees' job satisfaction: A case from the private banking sector of Pakistan. Journal of Asian business strategy, 4(3), 41.

Jeruto, K. (2015). Organizational commitment and job satisfaction in higher educational institutions: the Kenyan case. PhD thesis, Middlesex University.

House, R. J., & Mitchell, T. R. (1974). Path-goal theory of leadership. Organization Development Journal, 2(1), 15-16.

Jit, S. C. (2013). Organizational Behavior, (3rd Ed.). Vikas Publishing House, Reprint.

Kagwiria, L., (2016). Influence of Leadership on Employee Productivity at KCB Bank Kenya Limited. Nairobi Branches, University of Nairobi.

Kenya Bankers Association, (2018). Annual Report. Government Press. Retrieved from

Khuong, M. N. & Dang, T. H. (2015). The Effects of Leadership Styles on Employee Motivation in Auditing Organizations in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, International Journal of Trade, Economics and Finance, 6 (7), 12-14.

Lamb, R. (2013). How can Managers Use Participative Leadership Effectively? Retrieved January 1, 2018, from

Lumbasi, G. W., K’Aol, G. O., & Ouma, C. A. (2016). The effect of achievement oriented leadership style on the performance of COYA Senior Managers in Kenya. International Journal of Novel Research in Marketing Management and Economics, 3(2), 118-125

Lussier, N. R., & Achua, C. F. (2010). Effective Leadership. London: Thomson South-Western.

Malik, S. H. (2013). Leadership Behavior and Employee Job Satisfaction: A Study of Path-Goal Theory in Telecom Sector. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation) Islamabad: National University of Modern Languages.

Mohammad, V. Nazari, A. A., & Mehrdad, G. C. (2013). The relationship between employees empowerment with job satisfaction in Melli Bank of Guilan Province. Arabian Journal of Business and Management Review (OMAN Chapter) 2 (12), 71-73.

Moorhead., G & Griffin R. (2012). Managing Organizational Behavior, South-Western Cengage Learning.

Negron, D. (2008). A case study examining the relationship of the path-goal theory leadership styles to profits in El Paso, Texas, Rent-A-Center stores. Capella: Capella University.

Northouse, P. (2013). Leadership Theory and Practice. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, Inc.

Nyaberi, E. N., & Kiriago, A. N. (2013). Effects of Retrenchment on the Morale and Job Security of Surviving Employees in Kenya. London: Sage Publications.

Otieno, B. B. A., Waiganjo, E. W., & Njeru, A. (2015). Effect of Employee Engagement on Organization Performance in Kenya’s Horticultural Sector. International Journal of Business Administration, 6(2), 1-4.

Polston-Murdoch, L. (2013). An Investigation of path-goal theory, relationship of leadership style, supervisor-related commitment, and gender. Journal of Emerging Leadership Journeys 1 (4), 21-25.

Ratyan, T., & Mohd, A. (2013). Overview of Path-Goal Leadership Theory. Comprehensive Research Journals, 1(1), 1-5. 10.11113/jt.v64.2235

Robbins, S. P. (2005). Organizational Behavior (11th Ed.) Pearson Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J.

Robbins, S. P. (2014). Organizational Behavior (16th Ed.). Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall.

Shaukat, M. Z., Senin, A. A., & Ahmed, I. (2012). An exchange perspective of job satisfaction: A study of banking sector of Pakistan. Business management dynamics, 1(12), 59.

Shafritz, J. M. (2010). Introducing Public Administration. Philadelphia: Longman Inc.

Suradi, A. (2017). Suradi, S. (2017). The effect of leadership style and organizational Culture on Lecturer’s job satisfaction. Russian Journal of Agricultural and Socio-Economic Sciences, 64(4). 10.18178/joams.6.1

Taris, T. W. (2016). Is there a relationship between burnout and objective performance? A critical review of 16 studies: work and stress, Journal of Humanities, 20(3), 316-334.

Temple, J. C. (2013). A Quantitative Study of Factors Contributing to Perceived Job Satisfaction of Information Technology Professionals Working in California Community Colleges. Doctoral Dissertation. University of La Verne.

Titko, J., & Lace, N. (2015). Customer satisfaction and loyalty in Latvian retail banking. Economics & Management.

Tomazˇevicˇ, N., Seljak, J. & Aristovnik, A. (2014). Factors influencing employee satisfaction in the police service: the case of Slovenia. Journal of Social Sciences 6(1), 64 – 73.

Vroom, V.H. (1964). Work and motivation. New York: Wiley.

Yang, X., W. Wang, (2013). Exploring the Determinants of Job Satisfaction of Civil Servants in Beijing, China. Public Personal Management. Journal of Management, 2 (1), 2-3. https://doi: 10.1515/orga-2017-0004

Yukl, G. A. (2013). Leadership in Organizations (7th Ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Authors contributing to IJRBS agree to publish their articles under the Creative Commons Attribution- 4.0 NC license, allowing third parties to share their work (copy, distribute, transmit) and to adapt it, under the condition that the authors are given credit, that the work is not used for commercial purposes, and that in the event of reuse or distribution, the terms of this license are made clear. Authors retain copyright of their work, with first publication rights granted to IJRBS. However, authors are required to transfer copyrights associated with commercial use to the Publisher. The authors agree to the terms of this Copyright Notice, which will apply to this submission if and when it is published by this journal

Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously( exceptin the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other languages, without the written consent of the Publisher. The Editors reserve the right to edit or otherwise alter all contributions, but authors will receive proofs for approval before publication