The Role of family influence, gender, and entrepreneurial education on Indonesian vocational students becoming entrepreneurs
Keywords:Entrepreneurial Intention, Family Influence, Gender, Entrepreneurial Education, Vocational School, Indenosia
The study analyzed whether family influence, gender, and entrepreneurial education would influence vocational students’ desire to become entrepreneurs. A survey was conducted in 6 vocational schools in Tasikmalaya, West Java, involving 246 vocational students. Using multiple regression analysis, findings show that entrepreneurial education has the highest influence (57.5%) shaping entrepreneurial intention among vocational students, while gender account for 30% influence on students’ entrepreneurial intention. Male and female students believed that they must be given the same opportunities for entrepreneurship, yet there are feminine and masculine attributes that differentiate successful entrepreneurial plans between genders. Lastly, findings show that family background has the least influence (16%) on entrepreneurial intentions. Respondents disclosed that there are many choices open to them aside from being entrepreneurs, and they would opt for this choice instead of following their parents. Nevertheless, they believe in family support through advice and access to capital. Implications for research, policy, and practice are discussed. This study has shown evidence that entrepreneurship can be a solution to Indonesia’s high unemployment problem for young vocational students, but this entails better entrepreneurial education, the provision of gender-equal opportunities for males and female students, and enhanced family support for entrepreneurial ventures.
Ajike, E., Goodluck, N., Hamed, A. Onyia, V. Kwarbai, J. (2015). Entrepreneurship Education and Entrepreneurial Intentions: The Role of Theory of Planned Behaviour. International Journal of Advanced Research in Social Engineering and Development Strategies, 3(1), 2-18
Aldrich, H. E., & Cliff, J. E. (2003). The pervasive effects of family on entrepreneurship: Toward a family embeddedness perspective. Journal of Business Venturing, 18(5), 573-596. http://doi:10.1016/S0883-9026(03)00011-9
Arikunto. (2016). Prosedur Penelitian Suatu Pendekatan Praktik. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta.
Arquisola, M.J., Shella, K. & Hutabarat, E. (2018). How does board diversity affect the financial performance of commercial banks in Indonesia? An Inquiry. Jurnal Manajemen 12 (1), 62-73.
Arquisola, M.J. (2017). I see myself as climbing a mountain: Female leaders’ constraints and sensemaking in Indonesian higher education. Proceedings of the DIES Conference: Female Leadership and Higher Education Management in Developing Countries,Bonn,Germany,28-30,June,2017. https://www.daad.de/medien/veranstaltungen/daad_gender_conference_proceedings_2017.pdf
Badan Pusat Statistic (BPS, 2018). Indikator pasar tenaga kerja Indonesia Februari 2018. Jakarta: Badan Pusat Statistics Publication no. 04120.1803. ISSN 2088-5679.
Bandura, A. (1992). Social cognitive theory: An agentic perspective. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 2, 21-41. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-839X.00024
Bergman, N., Rosenblatt, Z., Erez, M., & De-Haan, U. (2011). Gender and the effect of entrepreneurship training program on entrepreneurial self-efficacy and entreprenurial knowledge gain. Entrepreneurship Small Business, 13(1), 38-54. https://doi: 10.1504/IJESB.2011.040415
Bignotti, A., & le Roux, I. (2018). Discovering the entrepreneurial endowment of the youth. African Journal of Economic and Management Studies, 9 (1), 14–33. https://doi.org/10.1108/AJEMS-02-2016-0020
Brown, D., Brooks, L., & Associates (Eds.). (1990). Career choice and development (2nd ed.). San Fransisco: Jossey-Bass. https://doi.org/10.1002/bdm.3960070307
Chiang CW., Tomimatsu K. (2011). Interaction design teaching method design. In: Jacko J.A. (eds). Human-Computer Interaction. Design and Development Approaches. HCI 2011. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp. 45-53. Berlin: Springer:
Chlosta, S., Patzelt, H., Sabine, B. K., & Dormann, C. (2012). Parental role models and the decision to become self-employed: The moderating effect of personality. Small Business Economics 38(1), 121-138. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11187-010-9270-y.
Cox, L. W., Mueller, S. L., & Moss, S. E. (2002). The Impact of Entrepreneurship Education on Entreprenurial Self-efficacy. International Journal Entrepreneurship Education, 1(2) 229-245.
Díaz-García , M. C., & Jiménez-Moreno, J. (2010). Entrepreneurial intention: the role of gender. Interntional Journal of Entrepreneurship Management, 6 (3), 261-283. https://doi.10.1007/s11365-008-0103-2
Fatimah, S. (2018, March 1). 1,5 Juta Siswa vocational Akan Lulus, Lapangan Pekerjaan Masih Minim. Retrieved from Okezone.com: https://news.okezone.com/read/2018/03/01/65/1866500/1-5-juta-siswa-vocational-akan-lulus-lapangan-pekerjaan-masih-minim
Farrukh, M., Khan, A. A., Khan, M. S., Ramzani, S. R., & Akeem, B. S. (2017, August 16). Entrepreneurial intentions: the role of familial factors, personality traits and self-efficacy. World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, 13(4), 303-317. https://doi.org/10.1108/WJEMSD-03-2017-0018
Foster, B. (2018). An investigation on entrepreneurial competencies of creative industry in Bandung, Indonesia. International Journal of Research in Business and Scoail Science, 7(3), 10-17. https://doi:10.20525/ijrbs.v7i3.869
Gibcus, P. (March, 2012). Effects and impact of entrepreneurship programmes in higher education. Brussels: Entrepreneurship Unit Directorate-General for Enterprise and Industry European Commission.
Gupta, V. K., Turban, D. B., Wasti, S. A., & Sikdar, A. (2017). The role of gender stereotypes in perceptions of entrepreneurs and intentions to become an entrepreneu. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 33(2) 397-417. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6520.2009.00296.x
Inibaru.Id, (2018, January 23). Dari Kota Kecamatan ke Pasar Internasional. Retrieved from Bordir Kawalu, https://www.inibaru.id/pasar-kreatif/bordir-kawalu-beken-di-pasarinternasional.
Jennings, W. & McDougald, M. (2007). Work-family interface experiences and coping strategies: Implications for entrepreneurship research and practice. Academy Management Review, 32(3), 747-760. https://doi: 10.2307/20159332
Joensuu-Salo, S., Varamäki, E., & Viljamaa, A. (2015). Beyond intentions – what makes a student start a firm? Education + Training, 57(8/9), 853-873. https://doi: 10.1108/ET-11-2014-0142
Jun, T. B., Qian, S., Miao, C., & James, O. F. (2014). The relationship between entrepreneurship Education and entrepreneurial Intentions: A meta-analytic review. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 38(2), 217-254. https://doi.org/10.1111/etap.12095
Karimi, S., Chizari, M., Biesman, H. J., Lans, T., & Mulder, M. (2014). Effects of role models and gender on students’ entrepreneurial intentions. European Journal of Training and Development, 38(8), 694-727. https://doi: 10.1108/EJTD-03-2013-0036
Khumaini, A. (2018, December 17). Jabar Teken Kesepakatan Bersama dengan Bukalapak. Retrieved from www.merdeka.com: https://www.merdeka.com/peristiwa/jabar-teken-kesepakatan-bersama-dengan-bukalapak.html
Kok, W. (2004) .Kok Report. report of an independent high-level expert group, headed by formed Dutch Prime Minister Wim Kok, presented to European Commission and the European Council, November 2004.
Kominfo. (2017, March 24). Peluang Besar Jadi Pengusaha Di Era Digital. Retrieved from https://kominfo.go.id/content/detail/9503/peluang-besar-jadi-pengusaha-di-era-digital/0/berita
Konig, A., Kammelander, N., & Enders, A. (2013). The family innovator's dilemma: How family influence affects the adoption of discontinuous technologies by incumbent firms. Academy of Management Review, 38(3), 418-441. https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.2011.0162
Kondisi Ekonomi Kota Tasikmalaya (2018). Retrieved from portal.tasikmalayakota.go.id: https://portal.tasikmalayakota.go.id/wp-content/uploads/2018/02/ekonomi.
Langowitz, M., & Minniti, M. (2007). The entrepreneurial propensity of women entrepreneurship. Theory and Practice, 31(3), 341-364. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6520.2007.00177.x
Lee, L., Wong, P. K., Foo, M. D., & Leung, A. (2011). Entrepreneurial intentions: The influence of organizational and individual factor. Journal of Business Venturing, 26(1), 124-136. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusvent.2009.04.003
Lespita, S., Heblich, S., Breugst, N., & Patzelt, H. (2012). Intergenerational transmission of entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of Business Venturing, 27(4), 414-435. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusvent.2011.11.006
Neequaye, E. N., Dechun, H., Sholihah, P. I., & Fynn, S. (2017, 11 November). The importance of entrepreneurship in China and Indonesia. European Journal of Business and Management, 9(11), 160-164.
Nitu-Antonie, E. S. (2017). Connecting gender identity, entrepreneurial training, role models and intentions. International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, 9(1), 87-108. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJGE-08-2016-0028
Pant, K. S. (2015). Role of The Family in Entrepreneurship Development in Nepali Society. The Journal of Nepalese Business Studies, 4(1), 37-47. https://doi.org/10.3126/jnbs.v9i1.14592
Sánchez, J. C., & Licciardello, O. (2012). Gender Differences and Attitudes in Entrepreneurial Intentions: The Role of Career Choice. Journal of Women's Entrepreneurship and Education, 1-2, 7-27.
Schmitt-Rodermund, E., & Vondracek, F. W. (2002). Occupational dreams, choices and aspirations: Adolescents’ entrepreneurial prospects and orientations. Journal of Adolescence, 25(1), 65-78. https://doi: 10.1006/jado.2001.0449
Sequeira, J., Mueller, S. L., & McGee, J. E. (2007). The effects of attitudes and perceived environment conditions on students' entrepreneurial intent: An Austrian perspective. Education & Training, 5(4), 272-291. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/00400910910964566
Shen, T., Arturo, E. O., & A. S. (2017). Does family support matter? The influence of support factors on entrepreneurial attitudes and intention. Academy of Entrepreneurship Journal, 23(1), 24-43.
Shinnar, R. S., Hsu, D. K., & Powell, B. C. (2014). Self-efficacy, entrepreneurial intentions, and gender: Assessing the impact of entrepreneurship education longitudinally. The International Journal of Management Education, 12(3), 561–570.
Shirokova, G., Osiyevskyy, O., & Bogatyreva, K. (2015). Exploring the intention-behavior link in student entrepreneurship: Moderating effects of individual and environmental characteristics. European Management Journal, 34(4), 386-399. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.emj.2015.12.007
State Minister for Cooperatives Small and Medium Enterprises Indonesia. (2017, March 11). Ratio Wirausaha Indonesia Naik Jadi 31. Retrieved from http://www.depkop.go.id/content/read/ratio-wirausaha-indonesia-naik-jadi-31-persen/
Sugiyono. (2014). Metode Penelitian Pendidikan Pendekatan Kuantitatif, Kualitatif Dan R&D. Bandung: Alfabeta.
Sulaksono, H. (2018, April 16). Jumalah Pengangguran di Kota Tasikmalaya mencapai 6.8%. Retrieved from ayotasik.com Web site http://ayotasik.com/read/20180416/122/1236/
Supranto. 2001. Statistik Teori dan Aplikasi. Edisi 6. Jakarta: Erlangga University.
Tarekegne, W.M. & Gelaneh, A.H. (2019). The integration of entrepreneurship education into Ethiopian universities formal curriculum. International Journal of Research in Business and Social Science, 8(2), 61-73. https://doi:10.20525/ijrbs.v8i2.191
Vaizler, B. (2011). The Impact of Entrepreneurship Education on Entrepreneurial Self-efficacy and Behavior: Unfolding the Effects of Passion and Inspiration (MSc thesis). Haifa, Israel: Technion.
Wijaya, T. (2009). Research Methods for Business Students, 5th Edition. Essex: Pearson Education
Welter, F., Smallbone, D., Isakova, N., & Aculai, E. (forthcoming). The role of gender for entrepreneurship in a transition context. In L. Iandoli, M. Raffa, & H. Landström (Eds.), Frontiers in European Research. Elgar: Cheltenham, U.K. and Northampton, MA.
Wyrwich, M. (2015). Entrepreneurship and the Intergenerational Transmission of Values. Small Business Economics, 45(1), 191-2013. http://doi 10.1007/s11187-015-9649-x
Yukongdi, V., & Lopa, N. Z. (2017). Entrepreneurial intention: a study of individual, situational and gender differences. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 24 (2), 333–352. https://doi: 10.1108/JSBED-10-2016-0168
Zellweger, T., Sieger, P., & Halter, F. (2010). Should I stay or should I go? Career choice intentions of students with family. Journal of Business Venturing, 26(5), 521-536. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusvent.2010.04.001
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2019 Maria Jacinta Arquisola, Iseu Adywianti Muanar
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
For all articles published in IJRBS, copyright is retained by the authors. Articles are licensed under an open access Creative Commons CC BY 4.0 license, meaning that anyone may download and read the paper for free. In addition, the article may be reused and quoted provided that the original published version is cited. These conditions allow for maximum use and exposure of the work, while ensuring that the authors receive proper credit.