Public cybersecurity awareness good practices on government-led websites




Cybersecurity Awareness, Cybersecurity Websites, Government, Global Cybersecurity Index, Public


Globally, governments should prioritise and lead cybersecurity awareness as they have a duty to inform their citizens about responsible online behavior. This study aims to search for government-led cybersecurity awareness practices followed by the four world-leading countries (the United States of America (USA), the United Kingdom (UK), Saudi Arabia and Estonia) as evident on their websites. This qualitative study employs content analysis by performing a review of the four world-leading countries’ websites, with a specific focus on support materials and other relevant activities as part of cybersecurity awareness. Analysis of the websites found that cybersecurity awareness practices had a wide reach. Firstly, a host of multimedia content (videos, readings, infographics, memes, games, and quizzes) was used in addition to social media platforms. Secondly, the content was categorized for a range of users, with parents and children being favored. Lastly, for countries where the first language was not English, websites were in the official language in addition to English. The study contributes to the literature on cybersecurity awareness. The good practices employed by these countries could serve as a benchmark globally for other countries seeking to formulate or update their websites. Furthermore, showcasing the four world-leading countries serves to assist countries which have a lower Global Cybersecurity Index organizational measure can improve their cybersecurity awareness websites.


Download data is not yet available.


Akdemir, N., & Yenal, S. (2021). How phishers exploit the coronavirus pandemic: A content analysis of COVID-19 themed phishing emails. Sage Open, 1-14. DOI:

Aljabri, S. (2021). Cybersecurity awareness in Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Research Publication and Reviews, 2(2), 320-330. DOI:

Al-Janabi, S., & Al-Shourbaji, I. (2016). A study of cyber security awareness in educational environment in the middle east. Journal of Information and Knowledge Management, 15(01). DOI:

Altwairqi, A. F., Alzain, M. A., Son, B., Masud, M., & Al-Amri, J. (2019). Four most famous cyber attacks for financial gains. International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology, 9(2), 2131-2139. DOI:

Amanowicz, M. (2020). Towards building national cybersecurity awareness. International Journal of Electronics and Telecommunications, 66(2), 321-326. DOI:

Bada, M., Sasse, A. M., & Nurse, J. R. C. (2019). Cyber security awareness campaigns: Why do they fail to change behaviour? arXiv:1901.02672.

Bada, M., von Solms, B., & Agrafiotis, I. (2018). Reviewing national cybersecurity awareness in Africa: An empirical study. The 3rd International Conference on Cyber-Technologies and Cyber-Systems.

Bahl, A., Sharma, A., & Asghar, M. R. (2021). Vulnerability disclosure and cybersecurity awareness campaigns on Twitter during COVID-19. Security and Privacy, 4(6). DOI:

Bishop, L. M., Morgan, P. L., Asquith, P. M., Raywood-Burke, G., Wedgbury, A., & Jones, K. (2020). Examining human individual differences in cyber security and possible implications for human-machine interface design. International Conference on Human-computer Interaction (pp. 51-66). Springer, Cham. DOI:

Broeders, D. (2021). Private active cyber defense and (international) cyber security – pushing the line? Journal of Cybersecurity, 7(1), 1-14. DOI:

Bruggemann, R., Koppatz, P., Scholl, M., & Schuktomow, R. (2022). Global cybersecurity index (GCI) and the role of its 5 pillars. Social Indicators Research, 159, 125–143. DOI:

Chang, L. Y. C., & Coppel, N. (2020). Building cyber security awareness in a developing country: Lessons from Myanmar. Computers and Security, 97, 1-10. DOI:

Choo, K. K. R. (2011). The cyber threat landscape: Challenges and future research directions. Computers & Security, 30(8), 719-731. DOI:

Corallo, A., Lazoi, M., Lezzi, M., & Luperto, A. (2022). Cybersecurity awareness in the context of the Industrial Internet of Things: A systematic literature review. Computers in Industry, 37, 1-16. DOI:

Czosseck, C., Ottis, R., & Talihärm, A. (2011). Estonia after the 2007 cyber attacks: Legal, strategic and organisational changes in cyber security. International Journal of Cyber Warfare and Terrorism, 1, 24-34. DOI:

Dahabiyeh, L. (2021). Factors affecting organizational adoption and acceptance of computer-based security awareness training tools. Information & Computer Security, 29(5), 836–849. DOI:

de Bruijn, H., & Janssen, M. (2017). Building cybersecurity awareness: The need for evidence-based framing strategies. Government Information Quarterly, 34(1), 1-7. DOI:

Flak, L. S., & Rose, J. (2005). Stakeholder governance: Adapting stakeholder theory to E-government. Communications of the Association for Information Systems, 16, 642-664. DOI:

Furnell, S., & Vasileiou, I. (2017). Security education and awareness: Just let them burn? Network Security, 12, 5-9. DOI:

Gav?nait?-Sirvydien?, J., & Mie?inskien?, A. (2021). Forecasting costs of cyber attacks using estimation the global cost of cyber risk calculator. International Scientific Conference, Contemporary Issues in Business, Management and Economics Engineering, (13-14 May 2021), Vilnius, Lithuania: Vilnius Gediminas Technical University. DOI:

Gcaza, N., & von Solms, R. (2017). A strategy for a cybersecurity culture: A South African perspective. The Electronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries, 80(1), 1-17. DOI:

International Telecommunications Union (ITU). (2020). Global cybersecurity index 2020. [Online]

Kangas, J., Harju-Luukkainen, H., Brotherus, A., Gearon, L. F., & Kuusisto, A. (2022). Outlining play and playful learning in Finland and Brazil: A content analysis of early childhood education policy documents. Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood, 23(2), 153-165. DOI:

Khalifa, S. K. H., & Al-Kumaim, N. H. S. (2021). A conceptual model for prevention of e-financial crimes in UAE: A review paper. Academy of Strategic Management Journal, 20(6), 1-10.

Kim, I., & Kuljis, J. (2010). Applying content analysis to Web-based content. Journal of computing and information technology, 18(4), 369-375. DOI:

Kortjan, N., & von Solms, R. (2014). A conceptual framework for cyber security awareness and education in SA. South African Computer Journal, 52(1), 29-41. DOI:

Kritzinger, E. (2017). Growing a cyber-safety culture amongst school learners in South Africa through gaming. South African Computer Journal, 29(2), 16-35. DOI:

Lee, C. S., & Kim, D. (2022). Pathways to cybersecurity awareness and protection behaviors in South Korea. Journal of Computer Information Systems, 1-13. DOI:

Mashiane, T., Dlamini, Z., & Mahlangu, T. (2019). February. A rollout strategy for cybersecurity awareness campaigns. Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Cyber Warfare and Security (ICCWS 2019), Stellenbosch, South Africa, 28 February – 1 March 2019. (pp. 242-250).

Nagyfejeo, E., & von Solms, B. (2020). Why do national cybersecurity awareness programmes often fail? International Journal of Information Security and Cybercrime, 9(2). DOI:

National Cybersecurity Alliance. (2023). Stay Safe Online. [Online].

National Cyber Security Centre (NCSC). (2023). Cyber Aware. [Online].

Ngoma, M. L., Keevy, M., & Rama, P. (2021). Cyber-security awareness of South African state-mandated public sector organisations. Southern African Journal of Accountability and Auditing Research, 23, 53-63. DOI:

Ole IT-vaatlik. (2023). Be protected from a cyber attack. [Online].

Rama, P., & Keevy. M. (2022). A comparative review of South Africa’s government-led cybersecurity awareness measures to those of world-leading countries. Southern African Journal of Accountability and Auditing Research, 24, 117-127.

Reid, R., & Van Niekerk, J. (2014). Towards an education campaign for fostering a societal cyber security culture. Proceedings of the Eighth International Symposium on Human Aspects of Information and Security and Assurance (pp. 174-184).

Republic of Estonia. (2022). Estonia and Japan signed digital cooperation agreement. [Online]

Saudi Computer Emergency Response Team. (2023). CERT. [Online].

Scholl, H. J. (2001). Applying stakeholder theory to E-government. In: B. Schmid., K. Stanoevska-Slabeva., & V. Tschammer (Eds.), Towards the E-Society: E-Commerce, E-business and E-Government. (pp. 735-747), Zürich, Switzerland: Kluwer Academic Publishers. DOI:

Sharma, P., Dash, B., & Ansari, M. F. (2022). Anti-phishing techniques – A review of cyber defense mechanisms. International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer and Communication Engineering, 11(7), 153-160. DOI:

Smith, D. T., & Ali, A. I. (2019). You've been hacked: A technique for raising cyber security awareness. Issues in Information Systems, 20(1), 186-194. DOI:

Stemler, S. (2000). An overview of content analysis. Practical Assessment, Research, and Evaluation, 7(17), 1-6.

Stop.Think.Connect. (2023). About Stop.Think.Connect. [Online].

Ulven, J. B., & Wangen, G. (2021). A systematic review of cybersecurity risks in higher education. Future Internet, 13(39), 1-40. DOI:

Valentinov, V., Roth, S., & Will, M. G. (2018). Stakeholder Theory: A Luhmannian perspective. Administration & Society, 51(5), 826-849. DOI:

van Steen, T., Norris, E., Atha, K., & Joinson, A. (2020). What (if any) behaviour change techniques do government-led cybersecurity awareness campaigns use? Journal of Cybersecurity, 6(1), 1-8. DOI:

Whitty, M., Doodson, J., Creese, S., & Hodges, D. (2015). Individual differences in cyber security behaviors: An examination of who is sharing passwords. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 18(1), 3-7. DOI:

Wongkrachang, S. (2023). Cybersecurity awareness and training programs for racial and sexual minority populations: An examination of effectiveness and best practices. Contemporary Issues in Behavioral and Social Sciences, 7(1), 35-53.

Yeoh, W., Huang, H., Lee, W.S., Al Jafari, F., & Mansson, R. (2022). Simulated phishing attack and embedded training campaign. Journal of Computer Information Systems, 62(4), 802-821. DOI:

Zhang-Kennedy, L., & Chiasson, S. (2021). A systematic review of multimedia tools for cybersecurity awareness and education. ACM Computing Surveys, 54(1), 1-39 DOI:

Zick, C. J. (2022). US, UK, Australia, Canada and New Zealand issue advisory on Russian state-sponsored and criminal cyber threats to critical infrastructure. [Online].




How to Cite

Rama, P., & Keevy, M. (2023). Public cybersecurity awareness good practices on government-led websites . International Journal of Research in Business and Social Science (2147- 4478), 12(7), 94–104.



Strategic Approach to Business Ecosystem and Organizational Development