Currere on the rescue: exploring teachers voices that shape teachers’ actions and identities


  • Boy Bongani Dlamini Senior Lecturer, Department of Education William Pitcher College, P. O. Box 7159, Manzini, Eswatini



Teacher’s voices, professional voice, societal voice, personal voice, currere, teacher’s identity


Exploring teachers’ voices in curriculum spaces is critical. As enactors of the curriculum, teachers need to reflect and critique their teaching actions in order to recognize voices that summon their actions. The study employed the currere curriculum model to engage Eight (8) geography teachers purposively selected from four (4) high schools in Eswatini. The aim was to explore the teachers’ voices that shape their actions and identities. The qualitative approach under the pragmatic paradigm and the educational design research guided the study. To generate data, semi-structured interviews, reflective activities and focus group discussions were used. Guided/thematic data analysis was used. The findings revealed that two (2) giant voices dominate and drive teachers’ actions: professional and societal voices. These two voices are in constant tension, resulting to the loss of teacher’s personal voice and identity. In essence, the tension causes teachers’ voices to be silenced or absent in curriculum enactment spaces. It was discovered that it was possible to sort the tension between the two giant voices through applying currere reflective moments, that would develop a neutral voice, the personal voice of teachers, thus a theory of teachers’ voices developed. The study concluded that teachers should identify strengths of both societal and professional voices to relieve the tension between the two and embrace teachers’ personal voices which are critical for understanding natural identities and for effective curriculum enactment.

Key Words: Teacher’s voices, professional voice, societal voice, personal voice, currere, teacher’s identity


Download data is not yet available.


Apple, M. (2004). Ideology and Curriculum. New York, NY: Routledge. DOI:

Amory, A. (2014). Tool-mediated authentic learning in an educational technology course: a designed-based innovation. Interactive Learning Environments, 22(4), 497-513. DOI:

Bainbridge, J. M., & Macy, L. (2008). Voices: Student teachers link teacher education to perceptions of preparedness for literacy teaching. Teacher Education Quarterly, 35(2), 65-83.

Bennett, R. E. (2011). Formative assessment: A critical review. Assessment in education: principles, policy & practice, 18(1), 5-25. DOI:

Berkvens, J. B. (2009). Developing Effective Professional Learning in Cambodia (Doctoral Dissertation). University of Twente, Enschede.

Bernstein, B. (1999). Vertical and Horizontal Discourse: An Essay. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 157-173. DOI:

Bernstein, B. (2006). Vertical and horizontal discourse: An essay Education and Society (pp. 53-73): Routledge. DOI:

Biesta, G. (2015). What is education for? On good education, teacher judgment, and educational professionalism. European Journal of education, 50(1), 75-87. DOI:

Black, P., & Wiliam, D. (2009). Developing the theory of formative assessment. Educational Assessment, Evaluation and Accountability (formerly: Journal of Personnel Evaluation in Education), 21(1), 5. DOI:

Budden, R. (2017). Exploration of factors that inform curriculum studies students to use e- resources in conducting Masters of Education dissertations at a South African university. (Doctor of Philosophy Full research), University of KwaZulu-Natal,


Castle, S. R., & McGuire, C. J. (2010). An Analysis of Student Self-Assessment of Online, Blended, and Face-to-Face Learning Environments: Implications for Sustainable Education Delivery. International Education Studies, 3(3), 36-40. DOI:

Celia, B., & Elize, D. P. (2018). Curriculum Studies: Development, interpretation, plan and practice. Van Schaik.

Cohen`, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2018). Research Methods in Education (8th ed.). London and New York: Routledge. DOI:

Creswell, J. W., & Creswell, J. D. (2017). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. Sage publications.

Dlamini,B.B., (2022) Voices of Eswatini General Certificate of Education Geography Teachers on Teaching Climate. University of Kwazulu –Natal, Edgewood. (Doctoral Dissertation).

Dlamini, M. (2018). Exploring formative assessment practices in Context-Based Science Curriculum in Swaziland: A case of Form 2 Junior Secondary School Science. (Doctor of Philosophy), University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban.

Elliott, J., & Norris, N. (Eds.). (2012). Curriculum, pedagogy and educational research: The work of Lawrence Stenhouse. Routledge. DOI:

Flores, Assunção M. (2005). Teachers' views on recent curriculum changes: Tensions and challenges. Curriculum journal, 16(3), 401-413. DOI:

Freire, P. (1994). Pedagogy of hope: Reliving pedagogy of the oppressed, trans. Robert R. Barr (New York: Continuum, 1998).

Fowler, H., & Fowler, F. (1991). In The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Current English [RE Allan, editor]: London: Oxford University Press.

Hoadley, U. (2018). Pedagogy in poverty: Lessons from twenty years of curriculum reform in South Africa: Routledge. DOI:

Hoadley, U., & Jansen, J. D. (2018). Curriculum: Organizing knowledge for the classroom: Oxford University Press Southern Africa.

Huizinga, T., Nieveen, N., & Handelzalts, A. (2019) Identifying Needs for Support to Enhance Teachers’ Curriculum Design Expertise. In J. Pieters, J. Voogt & N. Pareja Roblin (Eds.), Collaborative Curriculum Design for Sustainable Innovation and Teacher Learning. Cham: Springer DOI:

Kaushik, V., & Walsh, C. A. (2019). Pragmatism as a research paradigm and its implications for social work research. Social sciences, 8(9), 255. DOI:

Khoza, S. B. (2021a). Can Teachers’ Identities Come to the Rescue in the Fourth Industrial Revolution? Technology, Knowledge and Learning, 1-22.

Khoza, S. B. (2021b) Exploration the migration to a Digitalised Curriculum at UKZN. Education and Science, 11, 682. DOI:

Khoza, S. B. (2020). Academics “Why” of Knowledge-Building for the Fourth Industrial Revolution and COVID-19 Era. International Journal of Higher Education, 9(6), 247- 258. DOI:

Khoza, S. B., & Mpungose, C. B. (2022). Digitalised curriculum to the rescue of a higher education institution. African Identities, 20(4), 310-330. DOI:

Khoza, S. B., & Biyela, A. T. (2020). Decolonising technological pedagogical content knowledge of first year mathematics students. Education and Information Technologies, 25(4), 2665-2679. DOI:

Khoza, S. B. (2020). Students' Habits Appear Captured by WhatsApp. International Journal of Higher Education, 9(6), 307-317. DOI:

Khoza, S. B., & Fomunyam, K. G. (2021). Can alignment of digital resources with needs produce a new curriculum theory for teaching?. In Curriculum Theory, Curriculum Theorising, and the Theoriser (pp. 219-236). Brill. DOI:

Khoza, S. B. (2019). Lecturers’ reflections on curricular spider web concepts as transformation strategies. In Transformation of higher education institutions in post- apartheid South Africa (pp. 15-26). Routledge. DOI:

Khoza, S. B. (2018). Can Teachers' Reflections on Digital and Curriculum Resources Generate Lessons? Africa Education Review, 15(4), 20-35. DOI:

Khoza, S. B. (2017b). Master of Education Students' Reflections: Which Curriculum Reasons Are Promoted or Limited by Skype Resources? Progressio, 39 (2). DOI:

Khoza, S. B. (2016a). Is teaching without understanding curriculum visions and goals a high risk? South African Journal of Higher Education 30(5): 104-119. DOI:

Khoza, S. B. (2015a). Student teachers' reflections on their practices of the curriculum and assessment policy statement. South African Journal of Higher Education, 29(4), 179-197. DOI:

Khoza, S. B. (2015b). Can Turnitin come to the rescue: From teachers’ reflections? South African Journal of Education, 35(4). DOI:

Khoza, S. B., ,Makumane, M., & Zuma, S. (2022). Vaccine education to the rescue of students in the COVID-19 revolution. International Journal of Research in Business and Social Science (2147-4478), 11(10), 328-340. DOI:

Khumalo, S. M., Shoba, M. E., & Khoza, S. B. (2023). Individual dynamics for effective implementation of mainstream English curriculum at a school for the deaf. International Journal of Research in Business and Social Science (2147- 4478), 12(2), 440-457. DOI:

Mabuto, M. P. (2020). Educators Enacting Non-Formal Education Policy ? Case of Three Schools in Masvingo District, Zimbabwe ? An Exploration. (PhD), University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban.

Mabuza, D. C. (2018). Educators’ reflections of the Swaziland junior secondary Integrated consumer science curriculum: towards development of a unique content area (Doctoral dissertation).

Makumane, M. A. (2020). Theory of Enactment Strategies as a Way forward in Enacting a French Integrated Curriculum in Lesotho. In Curriculum Theory, Curriculum Theorising, and the Theoriser (pp. 295-319). Brill. DOI:

Makumane, M. A., & Khoza, S. B. (2020). Educators’ reasoning’s and their effects on successful attainment of curriculum goals. South African Journal of Higher Education, 34(2), 95-11. DOI:

Maree, K. (2020). First steps in research. Cape Town: Van Schaik Publishers.

Marsh, C. J. (2009). Key concepts for understanding curriculum: Routledge. DOI:

Mentz, E., & Van Zyl, S. (2016). Introducing cooperative learning: students' attitudes towards learning and the implications for self-directed learning. DOI:

Mpungose, C. B. (2020c). Emergent transition from face-to-face to online learning in a South African University in the context of the Coronavirus pandemic. Humanities and Social Sciences Communications, 7(1), 1-9. DOI:

Mpungose, C. B. (2018). Exploring lecturers’ reflections on the use of Moodle to teach physical science modules at a South African university (Doctoral dissertation).

Mpungose, C. B., & Khoza, S. B. (2020a). Postgraduate students’ experiences on the use of Moodle and Canvas learning management system. Technology, Knowledge and Learning, 1-16.

Mpungose, C. B., & Khoza, S. B. (2022). Postgraduate students’ experiences on the use of Moodle and Canvas learning management system. Technology, Knowledge and Learning, 27(1),1-16. DOI:

Nieuwenhuis, J. (2016). Qualitative research designs and data-gathering techniques. In K. Maree (Ed.), First steps in research (3 ed., pp. 72-100). Pretoria: Van Schaik.

Plomp, T., & Nieveen, N. (2013). Educational design research. Enschede: Netherland Institute For Curriculum Development (SLO).

Pinar, W. F. (2012). What is curriculum theory? Routledge. DOI:

Pinar, W. F. (1994). Autobiography, Politics, and Curriculum. New York, NY: Peter Lang

Pinar, F. W. (1975). The method of “currere”. University of Rochester. Washington D. C., 1-19. Retrieved from

Pollard, A. (ed.). (2010). Professionalism and pedagogy: A contemporary opportunity. ATLRP Commentary. London: GTCE/TLRP.

Samuel, M. A. (2008). On becoming a teacher: Life history research and the force-field model of Teacher Development in Dhunpath, R. and Samuel, M.A. (Eds.). Life history research-Epistemology, methodology and representation. Rotterdam: Sense

Publishers. DOI:

Shoba, M. E. (2018). Exploring Teachers’ Experiences of Teaching English-Speaking Skill to Second Language Learners in the Intermediate Phase in three KwaNdengezi Township Primary Schools. (Doctor of philosophy), University of Kwazulu-Natal, Edgewood.

Shulman, L. (1987). Knowledge and teaching: Foundations of the new reform. Harvard educational review, 57(1), 1-23. DOI:

Silseth, K. (2018). Students’ everyday knowledge and experiences as resources in educational dialogues. Instructional Science, 46(2), 291-313. DOI:

Sokhulu, L. H. (2020). Students’ experiences of using digital technologies to address their personal research needs during the COVID-19 lockdown. African Identities, 19(4), 436-452. DOI:

Stenhouse, L. (2005). An introduction to curriculum research and development. London: Butler and Turner Limited.

Stephen, C. (2006). Early years education: Perspectives from a review of the international literature.

Thijs, A., & van den Akker, J. (2009). Curriculum in development. Roetledge.

Tyler, R. W. (2013). Basic principles of curriculum and instruction. Illinois: University of Chicago press. DOI:

Van Eeden, E. S., (Ed.). (2018). Teaching and Learning History and Geography in the South African Classroom. Van Schaik Publishers.

Van den Akker, J. (2010). Curriculum design research. An introduction to educational design research, 37, 37-50. DOI:

Van den Akker, J., Gravemeijer, K., McKenney, S., & Nieveen, N. (Eds.). (2006). Educational design research. Routledge. DOI:

Waghid, Y., & Davids, N. (2016). Educational leadership as action: Towards an opening of rhythm. South African Journal of Higher Education, 30(1), 123-137. DOI:

Yin, R. K. (2011). Qualitative Research from Start to Finish. New York: The Guilford Press.

Young, M. (2014). Overcoming the crisis in curriculum theory: A knowledge-based approach. Journal of curriculum studies, 45(2), 101-118. DOI:

Zuma., T. H. (2020). Exploring Lecturers’ Understanding of Turnitin Utilisation in Assessing Mathematics at a South African University. (PhD), University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban.




How to Cite

Dlamini, B. B. (2023). Currere on the rescue: exploring teachers voices that shape teachers’ actions and identities. International Journal of Research in Business and Social Science (2147- 4478), 12(7), 492–503.



Teaching, Learning & Higher Education Institutions