Understanding the impact of policy adherence and implementation on streams in the Umlazi River System

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.20525/ijrbs.v11i3.1738

Keywords:

Stream management, Water Policy adherence, Umlazi, South Africa

Abstract

Although the national policy landscape is saturated with environmental and surface water management policies, there is limited evidence of successful policy implementation at a local level. This lack of policy adherence can have many economic, environmental, and public health effects in an area hence measure to improve adherence and implementation are essential. This study, therefore, looked at the lack of stream policy adherence and implementation by the government at Umlazi Township, which is the second biggest township in South Africa, with a population reported to be about half a million people. The study integrated three approaches: the Health Belief Model (HBM), Adaptive River Management, and Social-Ecological Model (SEM) to evaluate the scientific knowledge regarding river status, and uncertainty levels and finally evaluate the impact of policy implementation and evaluation on surface water quality management in the Umlazi area. Data was collected from local municipality workers and Sihlanzimvelo Initiative workers, as these two groups are primarily responsible for stream water management in the Umlazi Local. The data were thematically analyzed and revealed three main factors that contribute to the lack of policy adherence and implementation: citizens are not knowledgeable about on-stream management policy standards; policies on stream management are not implemented and enforced; and lastly, implementation and enforcement of these policies are perceived as difficult. Citizen environmental education and stream worker capacity building appear to be key in improving policy adherence and implementation in Umlazi streams.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Ntokozo Amanda Xaba, Main Author

PhD in Business Administration at the Durban University of Technology.

References

Aarts, H., Dijksterhuis, A,. & Midden, C. (1999). To plan or not to plan? Goal achievement or interrupting the performance of mundane behaviours. European Journal of Social Psychology, 29, 971-979.

Ajzen, I., Joyce, N., Sheikh, S., & Cote, N. G. (2011). Knowledge and the prediction of behavior: The role of information accuracy in the theory of planned behavior. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 33 (2), 101-117.

Alias. N.A. (2019). Correlation between knowledge, attitude and behaviour towards river pollution. International Journal of Modern Trends in Social Sciences, 2(9), 31-38

Awumbila, M. (2017). Drivers of migration and urbanization in Africa: Key trends and issues. Centre for Migration Studies: University of GhanaBarak, B., & Katz, D. (2015). Valuing instream and riparian aspects of stream restoration - A willingness to tax approach. Land Use Policy, (45), 204–212.

Becker M.H. (1974). The health belief model and personal health behavior. Health Education Monographs, 2, 324–508

Burke, A.J. (2015). An investigation of intimate partner violence perceptions in nine Appalachian Ohio Counties: A health belief model approach. Doctor of Philosophy, Kent State University College

Dahlberg, L. L., & Krug, E. G. (2002). Violence—A global public health problem. In E. Krug, L. L. Dahlberg, J. A. Mercy, A. B.

DEA (Department of Environmental Affairs). (2015). National Environmental Management Act, 1998 (ACT NO. 107 OF 1998), Notice 175 of 2015, Regulations for admission of guilt fines: National Environmental Management Waste Act, 2008 (ACT NO.59 OF 2008). Government of South Africa, Pretoria, South Africa.

DEA (Department of Environmental Affairs). (2018). South African water quality guidelines for coastal marine waters - Natural environment and mariculture use. DEA: Cape Town

DHPKZN (Department of Health Province of KwaZulu-Natal). (2015). District Health Plan 2015/2016 EThekwini health District. Available: http://www.kznhealth.gov.za/Strategic/DHP/2015-16/ethekwini.pdf

Dludla, S. (2019). Durban floods: Affected families welcome relief efforts in Umlazi. 28 April 2019. https://www.iol.co.za/news/south-africa/kwazulu-natal/durban-floods-affected-families-welcome-relief-efforts-in-umlazi-22102749

Donnenfeld, Z., Crookes, C., & Hedden, S. (2018). A delicate balance Water scarcity in South Africa, Institute for Security Studies (ISS), Southern Africa Report 13, March 2018

Dreibelbis, R., Winch, P. J., Leontsini, E., Hulland, K. R., Ram, P. K., Unicomb, L., & Luby, S. P. (2013). The integrated behavioural model for water, sanitation, and hygiene: a systematic review of behavioural models and a framework for designing and evaluating behaviour change interventions in infrastructure-restricted settings. BMC public health, 13(1), 1-15 1. doi:10.1186/ 1471- 2458-13-1015

DWS (Department of Water and Sanitation), (2015a). Planning level review of water quality in South Africa: A situation analysis: An internal report prepared by DWS: Water resources planning systems: Water Quality Planning. Department of Water and Sanitation: Pretoria

DWS (Department of Water and Sanitation). (2018a). Reserve determination of water resources for the Mvoti to Umzimkulu catchments national water act, 1998 (act no.36 of 1998) no. 1097 Government Gazette 41970, 12 0ctober. Department of Water and Sanitation: Pretoria

DWS (Department of Water and Sanitation). (2018b). Annual report 2018/19 Vote 36. Department of Water and Sanitation: Pretoria

DWS (Department of Water and Sanitation). (2015b). Strategic overview of the water services sector in South Africa 2015 (Version 4). Department of Water and Sanitation: Republic of South Africa.

EThekwini Municipality. (2015). EThekwini Sihlanzimvelo project operations manual: Roads and Stormwater Maintenance. EThekwini Municipality: Durban, South Africa.

Fielding, K., Russell, S., & Spinks, A., & Mankad, A. (2012). Determinants of household water conservation: The role of demographic, infrastructure, behavior, and psychosocial variables. Water Resources Research,48 (10),1-12.

Freitas, H.; Moscarola, J. & Jenkins, M. (1998). Content and lexical analysis: a qualitative practical application. ISRC, Merrick School of Business, University of Baltimore (MD, EUA), WP ISRC No. 070498, April 1998. 35 p.https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228827898_Content_and_lexical_analysis_a_qualitative_practical_application/citations

Glanz, K., Sallis, J. F., & Saelens, B. E. (2015). Advances in physical activity and nutrition environment assessment tools and applications: Recommendations. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 48(5),615–619.

Gounden, T., Pfaff, B., Macleod, N., & Buckley, C. (2006). Provision of free sustainable basic sanitation: the Durban experience.

Government of South Africa. (1998). Government gazette 19519: national environmental management act (NEMA). Act No. 107. Government of South Africa, Pretoria, South Africa.

Gregory, G., & Di Leo, M. (2003). Repeated behavior and environmental psychology: The role of personal involvement and habit formation in explaining water consumption. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 33(6), 1261–1296.

Hancock, T., Spady, S.W., & Soskolne, C. L. (2015). Global change and public health: addressing the ecological determinants of health: The report in brief. https://www.cpha.ca/sites/default/files/assets/policy/edh-brief.pdf

Harring, N., Jagers, S.C., & Matti. S. (2017). Public support for pro-environmental policy measures: Examining the impact of personal values and ideology. Sustainability, 9 (679),1-14.

Hill, M. & Carroll, S. (2009). Health promotion, health education, and the public’s health. In: Detels R, Beaglehole R, Lansang M.A., & Gulliford M (eds.), Oxford Textbook of Public Health (pp. 752–766).

Ingram, M., Wolf, A.M.A., López-Gálvez, N.I., Griffin, S.C., & Beamer, P.I. (2021). Proposing a social ecological approach to address disparities in occupational exposures and health for low-wage and minority workers employed in small businesses. Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology

Jagers, S., Matti, S., & Nordblom, K. (2016). How policy legitimacy affects policy support throughout the policy cycle. Göteborg: University of Gothenburg.

King, N., Strydom, H. & Retief, F. (2018). Environmental Management in South Africa. 3rd Edition. Cape Town: Juta

Lawrence, J., Reisinger, A., Mullan, B.& Jackson, B. (2013). Exploring climate change uncertainties to support adaptive management of changing flood-risk. Environmental Science & Policy, 33,133–142.

Liefferink, S. L., van Eeden, E. S., & Wepener, V. (2017). Past, Present and Future use of Municipal Water and Freshwater Resources of the Bekkersdal Community, Westonaria, South Africa. Journal of Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems, 5(3),430-446. http://dx.doi.org/10.13044/j.sdewes.d5.0155

Marmarà, D., Marmarà, V. & Hubbard, G. (2017). Health beliefs, illness perceptions and determinants of breast screening uptake in Malta: a cross-sectional survey. BMC Public Health, 17(416),1-19

McDowell, R. W., Cox, N., & Snelder, T. H. (2017). Assessing the yield and load of contaminants with stream order: Would policy requiring livestock to be fenced out of high-order streams decrease catchment contaminant loads? Journal of Environmental Quality, 46 (5),1038-1047.

McLean, C. (2016). Durban's estuaries. South Africa: EThekwini Municipalityhttps://www.researchgate.net/publication/311740507_Durban%27s_Estuaries

Mohiuddin, M., Al Mamun, A., Syed, F.A. Masud, M.M., & Su, Z. (2018). Environmental Knowledge, Awareness, and Business School Students’ Intentions to Purchase Green Vehicles in Emerging Countries. Sustainability, 10, (1534),1-18.

Nel, J. & Driver, A. (2015). National river ecosystem accounts for South Africa discussion document October 2015. http://www.statssa.gov.za/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/National-River-Ecosystem-Accounts-Discussion-Document-FINAL.pdf

Ouellette, J. A., & Wood, W. (1998). Habit and intention in everyday life: The multiple processes by which past behavior predicts future behavior. Psychological Bulletin, 124,54–74.

Pappenberger. F.& Beven, K.J. (2006). Ignorance is bliss: or seven reasons not to use uncertainty analysis. Water Resources Research, 42: 1-8 W05302. doi:10.1029/2005WR004820 https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1029/2005WR004820

Pride and Joy Consultants. (2015). EThekwini municipality services and living conditions survey four-year trend report, June 2015. Pride and Joy Consultants: Link Hills

Republic of South Africa. (1998). The National Water Act, Act no. 36 of 1998. Pretoria: Government Printers.

Rodda, S.N., Stenström, T.A., Schmidt, S., Dent, M., Bux, F., Hanke, N., Buckley, C.A., & Fennemore, C. (2016). Water security in South Africa: perceptions on public expectations and municipal obligations, governance and water re-use. Water SA, 42 (3),456-465.

Severtson, D.J., Baumann, L.C., & Brown, R.L. (2006). Applying a health behavior theory to explore the influence of information and experience on arsenic risk representations, policy beliefs, and protective behavior. Risk Analysis, 26(2):356–372

Sim, V., Sutherland, C., & Scott, D. (2016). Pushing the boundaries: Urban edge challenges in eThekwini Municipality. South African Geographical Journal 98(1), 37–60. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03736245.2015.1052840

Sinanovic, E., Ramma, L., Vassall, A., Azevedo V., Wilkinson L., Ndjeka N., McCarthy, K., Churchyard, G., & Cox, H. (2015). Impact of reduced hospitalisation on the cost of treatment for drug-resistant tuberculosis in South Africa. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease,19(2),172–178.

Smith, W. & Strand, J. (2008). Social Marketing Behaviour: A practical Approach Resource for Social Change. Washington DC: Academy for Educational Development.

South Africa Department of National Treasury. (2019). 2019 Bugdet estimates of national expenditure, vote 27 environmental affairs. Pretoria: Department of National Treasury.

South Africa. (1996). The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, Bill of Rights Chapter 24. Pretoria: Government Printers.

Sutherland, C. & Roberts, D. (2014). Why leadership matters in water and climate governance, Opinion Paper 12, Chance2Sustain. www.chance2sustain.eu.

Sutherland, C., Hordijk, M., Lewis, M., Meyer, C., & Buthelezi, S. (2014). Water and sanitation provision in eThekwini Municipality: A spatially differentiated approach. Environment and Urbanisation, 26(2), 105–128. http://dx.doi. org/10.1177/0956247814544871

Sutherland, C., Scotta, D., & Hordijk, M. (2015). Urban Water Governance for More Inclusive Development: A Reflection on the ‘Waterscapes’ of Durban, South Africa. European Journal of Development Research, 27, 488–504.

Sutherland, C., Scotta, D., & Hordijk, M. (2015). Urban Water Governance for More Inclusive Development: A Reflection on the ‘Waterscapes’ of Durban, South Africa. European Journal of Development Research, 27, 488–504.

Thunström, L., van ’t Veld, K., Shogren, J.F., & Nordström, J. (2014). On strategic ignorance of environmental harm and social norms. Revue d'économie politique,2(124),195-214

Tjernström, E. & Tietenberg, T. (2008). Do differences in attitudes explain differences in national climate change policies? Ecological Economics, 65,315–324.

UNICEF/WHO (United Nations Children’s Fund/World Health Organization). (2015). Progress on sanitation and drinking water: 2015 update and MDG assessment. New York/ Geneva: UNICEF/WHO, Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation. www.wssinfo.org/fileadmin/user_upload/resources/JMP-Update-report-2015_English.pdf

van der Bank, C.M. & van der Bank. (2014). Environmental Protection in South Africa: Human Rights Approach. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 5 (23),2059-2065

Veolia/IFPRI (International Food Policy Research Institute). (2015). The Murky Future of Global Water Quality: New Global Study Projects Rapid Deterioration in Water Quality. White Paper. Veolia / IFPRI. www.ifpri.org/publication/murky-future-global-water-quality-new-global-study-projectsrapid-deterioration-water

White, F. (2012). Global Journal of Public Health (inaugural editorial). GJMEDPH, 1(1), 1–2

White, K. M., Jimmieson, N. L., Obst, P. L., Graves, N., Barnett, A., Cockshaw, W., Gee, P., Haneman, L., Page, K., Campbell, M., Martin, E., & Paterson, D. (2015). Using a theory of planned behaviour framework to explore hand hygiene beliefs at the '5 critical moments' among Australian hospital-based nurses. BMC Health Services Research, 15 (59), 1-9.

WHO (World Health Organization),(1983). International Health Regulations (1969). Third annotated edition. Geneva: WHO

WHO (World Health Organization),(2014 b). Investing in water and water: Increasing access, reducing inequalities UN-Water global analysis and assessment of sanitation and drinking –water GLAAS 2014 Report. Geneva: WHO

WHO (World Health Organization). (2014). Malaria report 2014. Geneva: World Health Organization.https://www.who.int/malaria/publications/world_malaria_report_2014/en/

Williams, B.K., Szaro, R.C., & Shapiro, C.D. (2007). Adaptive Management: The U.S. Department of the Interior Technical Guide. Adaptive Management Working Group, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC.www.doi.gov/initiatives/AdaptiveManagement/TechGuide.pdf

Downloads

Published

2022-04-30

How to Cite

Mpangase, S., & Xaba, N. A. (2022). Understanding the impact of policy adherence and implementation on streams in the Umlazi River System. International Journal of Research in Business and Social Science (2147- 4478), 11(3), 195–205. https://doi.org/10.20525/ijrbs.v11i3.1738

Issue

Section

Interdisciplinary Studies in Humanities & Social Sciences