Impact of job satisfaction on turnover intention among academic personnel of private higher education sector in Iraq

A case of Tishk International University


  • Hamdi Serin Tishk International University, Business and Management Department, Kurdistan, Iraq
  • Zaid Raid Qasim Tishk International University, Business and Management Department, Kurdistan, Iraq
  • Marven Majid Mansoor Tishk International University, Business and Management Department, Kurdistan, Iraq



Job satisfaction, turnover intention, academic personal, kurdistan, iraq, tishk international university


The aim of this research is to find, test, and explore the relationship between employee's job satisfaction and turnover intention among the academic personnel of Tishk International University in Erbil, to find whether there is a relationship between job satisfaction and turnover intention and whether job satisfaction predicts turnover intention or not. The study consisted of 98 samples chosen randomly from Tishk International University academic employees, and correlation and regression analysis were used to interpret the collected data. As a result, we have found a robust negative relationship between job satisfaction and turnover intention, and job satisfaction can significantly predict turnover intention.


Download data is not yet available.


Ali, S. H. K., Khan, N. S., & Yildiz, Y. (2020). Leadership effects on CSR employee, media, customer, and NGOs. Management and Eco-nomics Research Journal, 6, Article ID 961566, 11.

Armstrong, M. (2006). A handbook of human resource management practice. Kogan Page Publishers.

Aziri, B. (2011). Job satisfaction: a literature review. Management Research & Practice, 3(4). Batura, N., Skordis-Worrall, J., Thapa, R., Basnyat, R., & Morrison, J. (2016). Is the Job Satisfaction Survey a good tool to measure job satisfaction amongst health workers in Nepal? Results of a validation analysis. BMC health services research, 16(1), 1-13.

Bester, F. (2012). A model of work identity in multicultural work settings (Doctoral dissertation, University of Johannesburg).

Beutell, N. J., & Wittig-Berman, U. (1999). Predictors of work-family conflict and satisfaction with family, job, career, and life. Psychological Reports, 85(3), 893-903.

Billings, A. G., & Moos, R. H. (1981). The role of coping responses and social resources in attenuating the stress of life events. Journal of behavioral medicine, 4(2), 139-157.

Blau, G. (1994). Testing the effect of level and importance of pay referents on pay level satisfaction. Human Relations, 47(10), 1251-1268.

Bothma, C. F., & Roodt, G. (2013). The validation of the turnover intention scale. SA journal of human resource management, 11(1), 12.

Bryman, A. (2016). Social research methods. Oxford university press.

Budur, T. (2018a). Analytic Hierarchy Process to Evaluate Corporate Image, Trust, and Switching Cost of GSM Operators: A Case of Kurdistan Region of Iraq. International Journal of Social Sciences & Educational Studies, 5(2), 241-250

Budur, T. (2018b). The impact of Al-Ghazali’s virtues on organizational commitment and performance: A case Study at private education institutions in Kurdistan Region of Iraq. Icabep, Erbil-Iraq, 2, p21.

Budur, T. (2020). Impact of Transformational Leadership on Customer Satisfaction: Mediating effects of Employee Performance and Organizational Citizenship Behaviors. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). International Burch University.

Budur, T., & Demir, A. (2019a). Leadership effects on employee perception about CSR in Kurdistan Region of Iraq. International Journal of Social Sciences & Educational Studies, 5(4), 184-192.

Budur, T., & Demir, A. (2019b). Leadership perceptions based on gender, experience, and education. International Journal of Social Sciences & Educational Studies, 6(1), 142–154.

Budur, T., & Poturak, M. (2021a). Transformational leadership and its impact on customer satisfaction. Measuring mediating effects of organisational citizenship behaviours. Middle East Journal of Management, 8(1), 67-91.

Budur, T., & Poturak, M. (2021b). Employee Performance and Customer Loyalty: Mediation effect of Customer Satisfaction. Middle East Journal of Management.

Budur, T., Demir, A., & Cura, F. (2021). University Readiness to Online Education during Covid-19 Pandemic. International Journal of Social Sciences and Educational Studies, 8(1), 180-200.

Budur, T., Faraj, K. M., & Karim, L. A. (2019). Benchmarking operations strategies via hybrid model: A case study of café-restaurant sector, 8, 842–854.

Budur, T., Rashid, C. A., & Poturak, M. (2018). Students perceptions on university selection, decision making process: A case study in Kurdistan Region of Iraq. International Journal of Social Sciences & Educational Studies, 5(1), 133–144.

Bulloch, H. C. (2017). In pursuit of progress: Narratives of development on a Philippine island. University of Hawaii Press.

Burke, M. J., Borucki, C. C., & Hurley, A. E. (1992). Reconceptualizing psychological climate in a retail service environment: A multiple-stakeholder perspective. Journal of Applied Psychology, 77(5), 717.

Chmiel, N. (2008). History and context for work and organizational psychology. An introduction to work and organizational psychology. A European perspective, 3-19.

Davis, K. (1989). Human behavior at work: Organizational behavior. McGraw-Hill Inc.

Day, D. V., & Bedeian, A. G. (1991). Predicting job performance across organizations: The interaction of work orientation and psychological climate. Journal of Management, 17(3), 589-600. de

Demir, A., & Budur, T. (2019). Roles of leadership styles in corporate social responsibility to non-governmental organizations (NGOs). International Journal of Social Sciences & Educational Studies, 5(4), 174-183.

Demir, A., Budur, T., & Heshmati, A. (2020). Antecedents of trust, corporate image, and switching costs: a case in telecommunication services in the Kurdistan region of Iraq. International Journal of Mobile Communications, 19(1), 53-74.

Demir, A., Budur, T., Hiwa, M., & Heshmati, A. (2021). Links between Knowledge Management and Organizational Sustainability: Does the ISO 9001 certification have an effect? Knowledge Management Research & Practice (TKMR), Https:// 10.1080/14778238.2020.1860663

Dulebohn, J. H., Molloy, J. C., Pichler, S. M., & Murray, B. (2009). Employee benefits: Literature review and emerging issues. Human Resource Management Review, 19(2), 86-103.

Eunson, B. (1987). Behaving: Managing yourself and others. McGraw-Hill.

Ferguson, L. W. (1962). The heritage of industrial psychology (No. 1-12). Finlay Press.

Garrido, M. J., Pérez, P., & Antón, C. (2005). Determinants of sales manager job satisfaction. An analysis of Spanish industrial firms. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 16(10), 1934-1954.

George, J. M., Jones, G. R., & Sharbrough, W. C. (2005). Understanding and managing organizational behavior. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Guzzo, R. A., & Gannett, B. A. (1988). The nature of facilitators and inhibitors of effective task performance. Facilitating work effectiveness, 21-41.

Hackman, J. R., & Oldham, G. R. (1976). Motivation through the design of work: Test of a theory. Organizational behavior and human performance, 16(2), 250-279.

Harris, M. M., & Fink, L. S. (1994). Employee benefit programs and attitudinal and behavioral outcomes: A preliminary model. Human Resource Management Review, 4(2), 117-129.

Heneman III, H. G., & Schwab, D. P. (1985). Pay satisfaction: Its multidimensional nature and measurement. International Journal of Psychology, 20(1), 129-141.

Heneman, H. judge, TA (2000). Compensation attitudes. Compensation in Organizations: Current Research and Practice, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA, 61-103.

Hinton, P., McMurray, I., & Brownlow, C. (2014). SPSS explained. Routledge.

Hodgkinson, G., & Ford, J. K. (2006). International Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology 2006 Volume 21. John Wiley & Sons.

Hulin, C. (1991). Adaptation, persistence, and commitment in organizations. M, D, Dunnette & L, M, Hough.

Hwang, J. I., & Chang, H. (2008). Explaining turnover intention in Korean public community hospitals: Occupational differences. The International Journal of health planning and management, 23(2), 119-138.

Iliescu, D., Ispas, D., Sulea, C., & Ilie, A. (2017). Vocational fit and counterproductive work behaviors: A self-regulation perspective. Journal of Applied Psychology, 100(1), 21.

Inuwa, M. (2016). Job satisfaction and employee performance: An empirical approach. The Millennium University Journal, 1(1), 90-103.

Ivancevich, J. M., Matteson, M. T., & Konopaske, R. (1990). Organizational behavior and management.

Jacobs, E., & Roodt, G. (2008). Organisational culture of hospitals to predict turnover intentions of professional nurses. Health SA Gesondheid (Online), 13(1), 63-78.

Jex, S. M., & Britt, T. W. (2014). Organizational psychology: A scientist-practitioner approach. John Wiley & Sons.

Judge, T. A., Thoresen, C. J., Bono, J. E., & Patton, G. K. (2001). The job satisfaction–job performance relationship: A qualitative and quantitative review. Psychological Bulletin, 127(3), 376. Jurgensen, C. E. (1978). Job preferences (What makes a job good or bad?). Journal of Applied psychology, 63(3), 267.

Kaliski, B. S. (2007). Encyclopedia of Business and Finance 2 (468-473). New York.

Kian, T. S., Yusoff, W. F. W., & Rajah, S. (2014). Job satisfaction and motivation: What are the differences among these two. European Journal of Business and Social Sciences, 3(2), 94-102.

Kirmeyer, S. L., & Lin, T. R. (1987). Social support: Its relationship to observed communication with peers and superiors. Academy of Management Journal, 30(1), 138-151.

Koeske, G. F., Kirk, S. A., Koeske, R. D., & Rauktis, M. B. (1994). Measuring the Monday blues: Validation of a job satisfaction scale for the human services. Social work research, 18(1), 27-35.

Kopelman, R. E., Brief, A. P., & Guzzo, R. A. (1990). The role of climate and culture in productivity. Organizational climate and culture, 282, 318.

Landy, F. J. (1997). Early influences on the development of industrial and organizational psychology. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82(4), 467.

Lazear, E. P. (1986). Salaries and piece rates. Journal of business, 405-431.

Lazear, E. P. (2000). Performance pay and productivity. American Economic Review, 90(5), 1346- 1361.

Lee, T. W., & Mitchell, T. R. (1994). An alternative approach: The unfolding model of voluntary employee turnover. Academy of management review, 19(1), 51-89.

Li, Y., & Huang, H. (2017). Validating the Job Satisfaction Survey involuntary child welfare. Children and Youth Services Review, 83, 1-8.

Locke, E. A., Feren, D. B., McCaleb, V. M., Shaw, K. N., & Denny, A. T. (1980). The relative effectiveness of four methods of motivating employee performance. Changes in working life, 363(1), 388.

Malka, A., & Chatman, J. A. (2003). Intrinsic and extrinsic work orientations as moderators of the effect of annual income on subjective wellbeing: A longitudinal study. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 29(6), 737-746.

McCausland, W. D., Pouliakas, K., & Theodossiou, I. (2005). Some are punished, and some are rewarded: A study of the impact of performance pay on job satisfaction. International Journal of Manpower, 26(7-8), 636-659.

Mellenbergh, G. J. (2008). Tests and questionnaires Analysis. Advising on research methods: A consultant's companion, 235-268.

Miceli, M. P., & Mulvey, P. W. (2000). Consequences of satisfaction with pay systems: Two field studies. Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society, 39(1), 62-87.

Mohammed, S. S., Suleyman, C., & Taylan, B. (2020). Burnout Determinants and Consequences Among University Lecturers. Amazonia Investiga, 9(27), 13-24.

Moore, D. S., & Kirkland, S. (2007). The basic practice of statistics ( 2). New York: WH Freeman.

Moorhead, G., & Griffin, R. W. (2008). Organizational behavior managing people and organizations. Dreamtech Press.

Morgeson, F. P., & Humphrey, S. E. (2006). The Work Design Questionnaire (WDQ): developing and validating a comprehensive measure for assessing job design and the nature of work. Journal of applied psychology, 91(6), 1321.

Morgeson, F. P., Garza, A. S., & Campion, M. A. (2012). Work design. Handbook of Psychology, Second Edition, 12.

Mowday, R. T., Porter, L. W., & Steers, R. M. (2013). Employee—organization linkages: The psychology of commitment, absenteeism, and turnover. Academic Press.

Mullins, L. J. (2013). Management and Organizational Behavior (11th edit).

Nebeker, D. M., & Neuberger, B. M. (1985). Productivity improvement in a purchasing division: The impact of a performance contingent reward system. Evaluation and Program Planning, 8(2), 121-134. Newstrom, J. W., Davis, K., & Pierce, J. L. (1993). Organizational behavior: Human behavior at work.

Oettinger, G. S. (2001). Do piece rates influence effort choices? Evidence from stadium vendors. Economics Letters, 73(1), 117-123.

Ogunkuade, I. M., & Ojiji, O. O. (2018). The Nigerian validation of Spector's job satisfaction survey. Ife Psychologia, 26(1), 170-181.

Ojebode, A., Ojebuyi, B. R., Oladapo, O. A., & Oyedele, O. J. (2018). Mono-Method Research Approach and Scholar–Policy Disengagement in Nigerian Communication Research. In The Palgrave Handbook of Media and Communication Research in Africa (pp. 369-383). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.

Oludayo, O. A., Falola, H. O., Obianuju, A., & Demilade, F. (2018). Work-Life Balance Initiative As A Predictor Of Employees Behavioural Outcomes. Academy of

Paarsch, H. J., & Shearer, B. (2000). Piece rates, fixed wages, and incentive effects: Statistical evidence from payroll records. International Economic Review, 41(1), 59-92.

Parker, S. K., Parker, S., & Wall, T. D. (1998). Job and work design: Organizing work to promote wellbeing and effectiveness ( 4). Sage.

Parker, S. K., Wall, T. D., & Cordery, J. L. (2001). Future work design research and practice: Towards an elaborated model of work design. Journal of occupational and organizational psychology, 74(4), 413-440.

Pitariu, H. D. (1992). I/O Psychology in Romania: Past, Present, and Intentions'. The Industrial-Organizational Psychologist, 29(4), 29-33.

Poturak, M., Meki?, E., Hadžiahmetovi?, N., & Budur, T. (2020). Effectiveness of Transformational Leadership among Different Cultures. International Journal of Social Sciences & Educational Studies, 7(3), 119–129.

Puni, A., Mohammed, I., & Asamoah, E. (2018). Transformational leadership and job satisfaction: the moderating effect of contingent reward. Leadership & Organization Development Journal.

Rashid, C. A., Salih, H. A., & Budur, T. (2020). The Role of Online Teaching Tools on the Perception of the Students during the Lockdown of Covid-19. International Journal of Social Sciences & Educational Studies, 7(3), 178–190.

Roodt, G. (2004). Turnover intentions. Unpublished document. Johannesburg: University of Johannesburg.

Ruck, M. K. (Ed.). (2015). Exploring internal communication: towards informed employee voice. Gower Publishing, Ltd.

Sanchez, J. I., & Brock, P. (1996). Outcomes of perceived discrimination among Hispanic employees: is diversity management a luxury or a necessity? Academy of Management Journal, 39(3), 704-719. Schaubroeck, J., Cotton, J. L., & Jennings, K. R. (1989). Antecedents and consequences of role stress: A covariance structure analysis. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 10(1), 35-58.

Senussi, Rmeisseh, Bousalem, & Sofyan (2019). The role of internal marketing in enhancing job satisfaction. University of Larbi Ben M'hidi O.E.B.

Serin, H. (2017). The role of passion in learning and teaching. International Journal of Social Sciences & Educational Studies, 4(1), 60-64.

Serin, H. (2017a). Developing the teaching profession: factors influencing teachers' performance. International Journal of Social Sciences & Educational Studies, 4(2), 10-14.

Serin, H. (2018). The use of extrinsic and intrinsic motivations to enhance student achievement in educational settings. International Journal of Social Sciences & Educational Studies, 5(1), 191-194.

Serin, H. (2018a). A comparison of teacher-centered and student-centered approaches in educational settings. International Journal of Social Sciences & Educational Studies, 5(1), 164-167.

Shaughnessy, J. J., Zechmeister, E. B., & Zechmeister, J. S. (2000). Research methods in psychology. McGraw-Hill.

Shimmin, S., & Strien, P. J. (1998). of Work and Organization. Handbook of Work and Organizational Psychology: Introduction to work and organizational psychology, 1, 71.

Siggins, J. A. (1992). Job satisfaction and performance in a changing environment.

Smith, P. C., Kendall, L. M., & Huhn, C. L. (1969). The measurement of satisfaction in work and retirement Chicago Rand McNally, 1969.

Snizek, W. E., & Bullard, J. H. (1983). Perception of bureaucracy and changing job satisfaction: A longitudinal analysis. Organizational behavior and human performance, 32(2), 275-287.

Souza, A. C., Alexandre, N. M. C., & de Brito Guirardello, E. (2017). Validate the Brazilian version of the job satisfaction survey using confirmatory factor analysis Journal of nursing measurement, 25(1), 46E-65E.

Spector, P. E. (1985). Measurement of human service staff satisfaction: Development of the Job Satisfaction Survey. American journal of community psychology, 13(6), 693-713.

Spector, P. E. (1997). Job satisfaction: Application, assessment, causes, and consequences ( 3). Sage.

Sternberg, R. J., & Mio, J. (2009). Cognitive Psychology: Wadsworth. Cengage Learning, Belmont, CA.

Strategic Management Journal, 17(1), 1-17.

Tietjen, M. A., & Myers, R. M. (1998). Motivation and job satisfaction. Management decision. Truxillo, D. M., Bauer, T. N., & Erdogan, B. (2015). Psychology and work: Perspectives on industrial and organizational psychology. Routledge.

Top, C., Abdullah, B. M. S., & Faraj, A. H. M. (2020). Transformational Leadership Impact on Employees Performance. Eurasian Journal of Management & Social Sciences. 1(1), 49-59

Torlak, N. G., Demir, A., & Budur, T. (2019). Impact of operations management strategies on customer satisfaction and behavioral intentions at café-restaurants. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management. 69 No. 9, pp. 1903-1924.

Torlak, N. G., Demir, A., & Budur, T. (2021). Decision-making, leadership and performance links in private education institutes. Rajagiri Management Journal. Https://

Torlak, N.G., Demir, A. and Budur, T. (2021). Using VIKOR with structural equation modeling for constructing benchmarks in the Internet industry, Benchmarking: An International Journal, ahead-of-print No. ahead-of-print.

Tsounis, A., & Sarafis, P. (2018). Validity and reliability of the Greek translation of the Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS). BMC psychology, 6(1), 1-6.

Ybema, J. F., Smulders, P. G., & Bongers, P. M. (2010). Antecedents and consequences of employee absenteeism: A longitudinal perspective on the role of job satisfaction and burnout. European journal of work and organizational psychology, 19(1), 102-124.

Yildiz, Y., & Budur, T. (2019). Introducing Environmental Awareness to College Students with Curricular and Extracurricular Activities. International journal of Academic Research in business and Social Sciences, 9(3)667-675.

Zaim, H., Demir, A., & Budur, T. (2020). Ethical leadership, effectiveness and team performance: An Islamic perspective. Middle East Journal of Management, 8(1), 42-66.




How to Cite

Serin, H., Raid Qasim, Z., & Majid Mansoor, M. (2022). Impact of job satisfaction on turnover intention among academic personnel of private higher education sector in Iraq: A case of Tishk International University. International Journal of Research in Business and Social Science (2147- 4478), 11(2), 402–413.



Teaching, Learning & Higher Education Institutions