Assessment of Critical Success Factors of TQM Culture in Hospitality Sector in Kosovo

  • Rejhane Zylfijaj
  • Bujar Pira
Keywords: TQM, Critical Success Factors, Hospitality, Quality, Hotel


This paper attemts to ilustrate how the managers and the staff of a 5 star hotel in Kosovo define quality. Furthermore, it explores the number of critical success factors related to TQM culture and how they are applied in the hotel operations. Different theories related to the quality in the field of service provision, more particular in hospitality or hotel sector and the introduction of the TQM culture in the same sector. A conceptual framework based on existing theories and literature is developed which is than confirms through the research findings and analysis. The findings suggest that most features associated with TQM, like critical success factors assessed throughout the research (leadership, customer focus, and training, communication, teams and staff empowerment) can produce an advantage for the 5 star hotel operations that will affect the quality of service. Furthermore, it confirms that some of the TQM aspects are applied and can be applied in 5 star hotel operations in Kosovo. The issue is whether these aspects are understood as TQM principles and whether their added value is embraced in the day-to-day running of the hotel. The outcomes imply that, indeed, the TQM culture is present in the The Hotel, a 5 star hotel in Kosovo. Some of the critical success factors are directly linked to TQM and some less and it also provides suggestions for improvement where needed, especially related to specific tools that are integral parts of the TQM culture.


Agus, A., Krishnan, S. K., Kadir, S. L. S. A. (2000). The structural impact of total quality management on financial performance relative to competitors through customer satisfaction: a study of Malaysian manufacturing companies. Total quality management, 11(4,5,6), pp. 808-819.

Arasli, H. (2002). Gearing total quality into small- and medium-sized hotels in North Cyprus. Journal of small business management, 40, pp. 350-359

Baidoun, S. (2003). An empirical study of critical factors of TQM in Palestinian organizations. Logistics information management, 16(2), pp. 156-171

Baker, S., Huyton, J., and Bradley, P. (2000). Principles of hotel front office operations. Second edition. London: Continuum.

Barrows C., Powers T., Reynolds D., Introduction to Management in the Hospitality Industry, Tenth Edition, 2012

Black, S. A. and Porter, L. J. (1996). Identification of the CSFs of TQM. Decision Sciences, 27(1), pp. 1-21

Campbell, C., Gold, A., and Lunt, I. (2003). Articulating leadership values in action: conversations with school leaders. Internationaljournal of leadership in education, 6(3), pp. 203-221

Chow, W. S. and Lui, K. H. (2003). A structural analysis of the significance of a set of the original TQM measurement items in information systems function. Journal of computer information systems, 43(3), pp. 81-91

Clarke, A. and Chen, W. (2007). International hospitality management: concepts and cases. Oxford; Burlington: Elsevier

Conger, J. A. and Kanungo, R. N. (1988). The empowerment process: integrating theory and practice. The academy of management review, 13(3), pp. 471-482

Cooper, R. G. and Kleinschmidt, E. J. (2007). Winning businesses in product development: the critical success factors. Research Technology management, 50(3), pp. 52-66

Crosby, P. B. (1984). Quality is Free: the Art of Hassle-Free Management. New York, NY: NAL Penguin

Dale, B.G. (2003). Managing Quality, 4th edition, Oxford: Blackwell

Dale, B. G., Wu, P. Y., Zairi, M., Williams, A. R. T., and Van Der Wiele, T. (2001). Total quality management and theory: an exploratory study of contribution. Total quality management, 12(4), pp. 439-449

Dolphin, R. R. (2005). Internal Communications: Today's Strategic Imperative. Journal of marketing communications, 11(3), pp. 171-190

Evans, J.R., & Lindsay, W.M. (1996). The Management and Control of Quality (3rd ed.). Minneapolis, West

Fynes, B. and Voss, C. (2001). A path analytic model of quality practices, quality performance, and business performance. Production and operations management, 10(4), pp. 494-513

Garvin, D. A. (1986). Quality Problems, Policies, and Attitudes in the United States and Japan: An Exploratory Study. The academy of management journal, 29(4), pp. 653-673

Godfrey, A. B. (2000). Total quality management. In Juran, J. M. and Godfrey, A. B., Juran's quality handbook (pp 14.4-14.5). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Henke, J., Krachenberg, A., and Lyons, T. (1993). Cross-functional teams: good concept, poor implementation. Journal of product innovation management, 10(3), pp. 216-229.

Hoevemeyer, V.A., 1993. How effective is your team? Training and Development, 47(9): 67-71

Hoyle, D. (2007). Quality management essentials. Oxford: Butterworth Heinemann.

Hur, Mann Hyung. 2009 “The Influence of Total Quality Management Practices on the Transformation of How Organizations Work.” Total Quality Management, 2009, Vol. 20, Issue 8, p. 847-861.

Ishikawa, K. (1985). What is total quality control? The Japanese way. New York, NY: Prentice Hall

Janes, P. L. (2003). Training and development in tourism organizations.

Johnston, R. and Clark, G., Service Operations Management, Improving Service Delivery, second edition, 2005

Joseph, I. N., Rajendran, C., and Kamalanabhan, T. J. (1999). An instrument for measuring total quality management implementation in manufacturing-based business units in India. Internal journal of production research, 37, pp. 2201-2215

Ju, T. Lin, B. Lin, C. And Kou, H. (2006), TQM Critical Factors and KM Value Chain Activities, Total Quality Management, 373-393

Kacmar, K. M., Zivnuska, S., Witt, L. A., and Gully, S. M. (2003). The Interactive Effect of Leader-Member Exchange and Communication Frequency on Performance Ratings. Journal of applied psychology, 88(4), pp. 764-772

Kanji, G. K. and Asher, M. (1996). 100 methods for total quality management. London: Sage

Kanji, G. K. and Wallace, W. (2000). Business excellence through customer satisfaction. Total quality management, 11(7), p. 980.

Knowles T., Hospitality Management, An Introduction, 1998

Knowles, T., Diamantis, D., and El-Mourhabi, J. B. (2004). The globalization of tourism and hospitality: a strategic perspective. Second edition. London: Thomson Learning

Kotler, P., Bowen, J. and Makens, J. C. (1999). Marketing for hospitality and tourism. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Kumar R. (2005), Research Methodology: A Step by Step Guide for Beginners, 2nd edition, Sage, p.64-65,93, 123, 154, 157

Kusluvan, S. (2003). Managing Employee attitudes and behaviours in the tourism and hospitality industry. New York: Nova

Lakhe, R. R. and Mohanty, R. P. (1995). Understanding TQM in service systems. International journal of quality and reliability management, 12(9), 139-153

Lashley, C. (2003). Effective communication with employees.

Lee, J. (2001). Leader-Member Exchange, Perceived Organizational Justice, and Cooperative Communication. Management Communication Quarterly, 14(4), pp. 574-589

Mauch, Peter. Quality Management: Theory and Application. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2010

Mohanty, R. P. and Bahera, A. K. (1996). TQM in the service sector.

Mullins L., Hospitality Management and Organisational Behavior, 2001

Oakland, J. (1993). Total quality management: The route to improving performance. London: Butterworth Heinemann

Oakland, J. S. (2003). Total quality management: text with cases, Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.

Oakland, J. (2004), Oakland on Quality Management

Palmer, G. and Burns, S. (1992). Revolutionizing the business: strategies for succeeding with change. Human resources planning, 15(1), pp. 77-84.

Parzinger, M. J. and Nath, R. (2000). A study of the relationships between total quality management implementation factors and software quality. Total quality management, 11(3), pp. 353-371

Rahman, S-U. (2001). Total quality management practices and business outcome: evidence from small and medium enterprises in Western Australia. Total quality management, 12(2), pp. 201-210

Rawlings, R. A. (2008). Total quality management (TQM). Bloomington: Author House

Rönnbäck A., et al. A Review of Empirical Investigations Comparing Quality Initiatives in Manufacturing and Service Organizations. Managing Service Quality. 2008. 18 (6) 577-593.

Samson, D. and Terziovski, M. (1999). The relationship between total quality management practices and operational performance. Journal of operations management, 17, pp. 393-409

Saraph, J. V., Benson, P. G., and Schroeder, R. G. (1989). AnInstrument for Measuring the Critical Factors of Quality Management. Decision sciences, 20(4), pp. 810-829.

Sasser, W.E., Olsen, R.P., Wyckoff, D.D. (1978) Management of Service Operations, Allyn & Bacon, Boston, MA

Schlesinger, L. A. and Heskett, J. L. (1991). Breaking the cycle of failure in services. Management review, 32(3), pp

B. Schneider & S. White (Eds.) Service Quality: Research Perspectives. Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, CA, 91-134.

Shiba, S., Graham, A., Walden, D. (1993), A New American TQM: Four practical revolutions in management, Portland, Oregon, Centre for Quality Management, Productivity Press

Sila, I. and Ebrahimpour, M. (2003). Examination and comparison of the critical factors of total quality management (TQM) across countries. International journal of production research, 41(2), pp 235-268

Slack, N., Chambers, S. and Johnston, Operations Management, 2007, 5th edition, Prentice Hall)

Stutts, A. T. and Wortman, J. F. (2006). Hotel and lodging management: an introduction. Second edition. Chichester: Wiley.

Sureshchandar, G. S., Rajendran, C., and Anantharman, R. N. (2001). A conceptual model for total quality management in service organizations. Total quality management, 12(3), pp. 343-363

Tari, J.J. (2005), “Components of successful total quality management”, The TQM Magazine, Vol. 17 No. 2, pp. 182-94

Tavalera, M. G. V. (2004). Development and validation of TQM constructs: the Philippine experience. Gadjah Mada international journal of business, 6(3), pp. 335-381.

Taylor, S.J. and Bogdan, R. (1984), Introduction to Qualitative Research Methods, 3rd edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.,p.7

Thiagarajan, T. and Zairi, M. (1997), A review of total quality management in practice/; understanding the fundamentals through examples of best practice applications, the TQM Magazine, 270-286

Wali, A. A., Deshmukh, S. G., and Gupta, A. D. (2003). Critical success factors of TQM: a select study of Indian organizations. Production planning and control, 14(1), pp. 3-14

Wilkinson, A. and Redman, T. Contemporary human resource management: text and cases. Harlow: Financial Times Prentice Hall

Zairi, M. Youseff, M.A, (1995). Benchmarking critical factors for TQM: theory and foundations, Benchmarking for Quality Management & Technology, 2(1), 5-20

How to Cite
Zylfijaj, R., & Pira, B. (2017). Assessment of Critical Success Factors of TQM Culture in Hospitality Sector in Kosovo. International Journal of Research in Business and Social Science (2147-4478), 6(1), 65-77.