Perceived overqualification and its positive impact on organization employee's behavior
Preceding researchers have tended to focus on the negative aspect of the perceived overqualification and its inadequacy in the organization. We offer an alternative perspective and postulate that perceived overqualification could influence employees’ behavior through an interactive mechanism. We propose that relational skill abilities, in the form of job autonomy of overqualified employees, determine their tendency to experience interpersonal influences, and, thus engage in helping behavior with devastating work deviance behavior. Data were collected from 20 multinational companies in China through a survey of 500 participants. Structural equation modeling was used for the analysis of data. The results indicate that perceived overqualification has a strong indirect impact via interpersonal influence on the helping behavior and workplace deviance behavior, and increase the helping behavior and decrease the workplace deviance behavior at the working environment. Further, outcomes concluded that job autonomy and prosocial motivation have a significant moderating role and increase the employers helping behavior and deteriorations their Workplace deviance behavior.
Baard, S. K., Rench, T. A., & Kozlowski, S. W. (2014). Performance adaptation: A theoretical integration and review. Journal of Management, 40(1), 48-99.
Bashshur, M. R., Hernández, A., & Peiró, J. M. (2011). The impact of underemployment on individual and team performance. In Underemployment (pp. 187-213): Springer.
Batson, C. D. (1987). Prosocial motivation: Is it ever truly altruistic? In Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 20, pp. 65-122): Elsevier.
BatSon, C. D. (1998). Altruism and prosocial behavior (In DT Gilbert, ST Fiske, & G. Lindzey(Eds.). The handbook of social psychology (Vol. 2, pp. 282–316). In: Boston: McGraw-Hill.
Batson, C. D., Ahmad, N., Powell, A. A., Stocks, E. L., Shah, J., & Gardner, W. (2008). Prosocial motivation. Handbook of motivation science, 135-149.
Batson, C. D., & Shaw, L. L. (1991). Evidence for altruism: Toward a pluralism of prosocial motives. Psychological inquiry, 2(2), 107-122.
Bedwell, W. L., Fiore, S. M., & Salas, E. (2014). Developing the future workforce: An approach for integrating interpersonal skills into the MBA classroom. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 13(2), 171-186.
Bennett, R. J., & Robinson, S. L. (2000). Development of a measure of workplace deviance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85(3), 349.
Blase, J., & Kirby, P. C. (2008). Bringing out the best in teachers: What effective principals do: Corwin Press.
Blauner, R. (1964). Alienation and freedom: The factory worker and his industry.
Bolino, M. C., & Feldman, D. C. (2000). The antecedents and consequences of underemployment among expatriates. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 889-911.
Borman, W. C., Brantley, L. B., & Hanson, M. A. (2014). Progress toward understanding the structure and determinants of job performance: A focus on task and citizenship performance. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 22(4), 422-431.
Breaugh, J. A., & Becker, A. S. (1987). Further examination of the work autonomy scales: Three studies. Human relations, 40(6), 381-399.
Cable, D. M., & DeRue, D. S. (2002). The convergent and discriminant validity of subjective fit perceptions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(5), 875.
Cable, D. M., & Edwards, J. R. (2004). Complementary and supplementary fit: a theoretical and empirical integration. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89(5), 822.
Campbell, J. W., Lee, H., & Im, T. (2016). At the expense of others: Altruistic helping behaviour, performance management and transformational leadership. Public Management Review, 18(6), 795-818.
Chen, G. (2005). Newcomer adaptation in teams: Multilevel antecedents and outcomes. Academy of Management Journal, 48(1), 101-116.
Cohen-Meitar, R., Carmeli, A., & Waldman, D. A. (2009). Linking meaningfulness in the workplace to employee creativity: The intervening role of organizational identification and positive psychological experiences. Creativity Research Journal, 21(4), 361-375.
Cordery, J. L., Mueller, W. S., & Smith, L. M. (1991). Attitudinal and behavioral effects of autonomous group working: A longitudinal field study. Academy of Management Journal, 34(2), 464-476.
Crossley, C. D., Cooper, C. D., & Wernsing, T. S. (2013). Making things happen through challenging goals: Leader proactivity, trust, and business-unit performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 98(3), 540.
De Cremer, D., & Van Lange, P. A. (2001). Why prosocials exhibit greater cooperation than proselfs: The roles of social responsibility and reciprocity. European Journal of personality, 15(S1).
De Dreu, C. K. (2006). Rational self-interest and other orientation in organizational behavior: a critical appraisal and extension of Meglino and Korsgaard (2004).
De Dreu, C. K., Weingart, L. R., & Kwon, S. (2000). Influence of social motives on integrative negotiation: a meta-analytic review and test of two theories. Journal of personality and social psychology, 78(5), 889.
Deci, E. L., Olafsen, A. H., & Ryan, R. M. (2017). Self-determination theory in work organizations: The state of a science. Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, 4, 19-43.
Detert, J. R., Burris, E. R., Harrison, D. A., & Martin, S. R. (2013). Voice flows to and around leaders: Understanding when units are helped or hurt by employee voice. Administrative Science Quarterly, 58(4), 624-668.
Diamantopoulos, A., & Siguaw, J. A. (2013). Introducing LISREL: A guide for the uninitiated: Sage.
Dodd, N. G., & Ganster, D. C. (1996). The interactive effects of variety, autonomy, and feedback on attitudes and performance. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 17(4), 329-347.
Edwards, I. R., & Shipp, A. I. (2007). The relationship between person-environment fit and outcomes: An integrative. Perspectives on organizational fit, 209.
Edwards, J. R., Cable, D. M., Williamson, I. O., Lambert, L. S., & Shipp, A. J. (2006). The phenomenology of fit: linking the person and environment to the subjective experience of person-environment fit. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91(4), 802.
Erdogan, B., & Bauer, T. N. (2009). Perceived overqualification and its outcomes: The moderating role of empowerment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94(2), 557-565. doi:10.1037/a0013528
Erdogan, B., Bauer, T. N., Peiro, J. M., & Truxillo, D. M. (2011). Overqualified employees: Making the best of a potentially bad situation for individuals and organizations. Industrial and organizational psychology, 4(2), 232;215;-232. doi:10.1111/j.1754-9434.2011.01330.x
Feldman, D. C. (1996). The nature, antecedents and consequences of underemployment. Journal of Management, 22(3), 385-407.
Feldman, D. C., Leana, C. R., & Bolino, M. C. (2002). Underemployment and relative deprivation among re‐employed executives. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 75(4), 453-471.
Ferris, G., Davidson, S., & Perrewé, P. (2005). Political Skill at Work: Impact on Work Effectiveness, Davies. In: Black Publishing, Mountain View, CA.
Ferris, G. R., Treadway, D. C., Perrewé, P. L., Brouer, R. L., Douglas, C., & Lux, S. (2007). Political skill in organizations. JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT, 33(3), 290-320.
Fine, S. (2007). Overqualification and selection in leadership training. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 14(1), 61.
Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of marketing research, 18(1), 39-50.
Grant, A., & Ashford, S. (2008). The dynamics of proactivity at work. Research in Organizational Behaviour, 28: 3-34. In.
Grant, A. M. (2007). Relational job design and the motivation to make a prosocial difference. Academy of management review, 32(2), 393-417.
Grant, A. M., & Berry, J. W. (2011). The necessity of others is the mother of invention: Intrinsic and prosocial motivations, perspective taking, and creativity. Academy of Management Journal, 54(1), 73-96.
Grant, A. M., & Mayer, D. M. (2009). Good soldiers and good actors: prosocial and impression management motives as interactive predictors of affiliative citizenship behaviors. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94(4), 900.
Grant, A. M., & Sumanth, J. J. (2009). Mission possible? The performance of prosocially motivated employees depends on manager trustworthiness. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94(4), 927.
Grant, A. M., & Wrzesniewski, A. (2010). I won’t let you down… or will I? Core self-evaluations, other-orientation, anticipated guilt and gratitude, and job performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 95(1), 108.
Guarino, C. M., Santibanez, L., & Daley, G. A. (2006). Teacher recruitment and retention: A review of the recent empirical literature. Review of educational research, 76(2), 173-208.
Hackman, J. R. (1980). Work redesign and motivation. Professional Psychology, 11(3), 445.
Hair, J. F., Anderson, R. E., Babin, B. J., & Black, W. C. (2010). Multivariate data analysis: A global perspective (Vol. 7). In: Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
Harari, M. B., Manapragada, A., & Viswesvaran, C. (2017). Who thinks they're a big fish in a small pond and why does it matter? A meta-analysis of perceived overqualification. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 102, 28-47. doi:10.1016/j.jvb.2017.06.002
Hu, J., Erdogan, B., Bauer, T. N., Jiang, K., Liu, S., & Li, Y. (2015). There are lots of big fish in this pond: The role of peer overqualification on task significance, perceived fit, and performance for overqualified employees. J Appl Psychol, 100(4), 1228-1238. doi:10.1037/apl0000008
Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. T. (2000). Constructive controversy: Wiley Online Library.
Johnson, G. J., & Johnson, W. R. (1996). Perceived Overqualification and Psychological Well-Being. The Journal of Social Psychology, 136(4), 435-445. doi:10.1080/00224545.1996.9714025
Johnson, G. J., & Johnson, W. R. (1997). Perceived overqualification, emotional support, and health. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 27(21), 1906-1918.
Johnson, G. J., & Johnson, W. R. (2000). Perceived overqualification and dimensions of job satisfaction: a longitudinal analysis. J Psychol, 134(5), 537-555. doi:10.1080/00223980009598235
Johnson, H.-A. M., & Spector, P. E. (2007). Service with a smile: do emotional intelligence, gender, and autonomy moderate the emotional labor process? J Occup Health Psychol, 12(4), 319.
Katz, F. E. (1968). Autonomy and organization: The limits of social control: Random House.
Khan, L. J., & Morrow, P. C. (1991). Objective and subjective underemployment relationships to job satisfaction. Journal of business research, 22(3), 211-218.
Korsgaard, M. A., Meglino, B. M., & Lester, S. W. (1997). Beyond helping: Do other-oriented values have broader implications in organizations? Journal of Applied Psychology, 82(1), 160.
Korsgaard, M. A., Meglino, B. M., Lester, S. W., & Jeong, S. S. (2010). Paying you back or paying me forward: understanding rewarded and unrewarded organizational citizenship behavior. Journal of Applied Psychology, 95(2), 277.
Kozlowski, S. W., & Bell, B. S. (2006). Disentangling achievement orientation and goal setting: effects on self-regulatory processes. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91(4), 900.
Kozlowski, S. W., Gully, S. M., Brown, K. G., Salas, E., Smith, E. M., & Nason, E. R. (2001). Effects of training goals and goal orientation traits on multidimensional training outcomes and performance adaptability. Organizational behavior and human decision processes, 85(1), 1-31.
Kraimer, M. L., Shaffer, M. A., & Bolino, M. C. (2009). The influence of expatriate and repatriate experiences on career advancement and repatriate retention. Human Resource Management, 48(1), 27-47.
Kristof‐Brown, A. L., Zimmerman, R. D., & Johnson, E. C. (2005). Consequences Of Individuals'fit At Work: A Meta‐Analysis Of Person–Job, Person–Organization, Person–Group, And Person–Supervisor Fit. Personnel psychology, 58(2), 281-342.
Kulkarni, M., Lengnick-Hall, M. L., & Martinez, P. G. (2015). Overqualification, mismatched qualification, and hiring decisions: Perceptions of employers. Personnel Review, 44(4), 529-549.
Lester, S. W., Meglino, B. M., & Korsgaard, M. A. (2008). The role of other orientation in organizational citizenship behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior: The International Journal of Industrial, Occupational and Organizational Psychology and Behavior, 29(6), 829-841.
Leung, K., Brew, F. P., Zhang, Z.-X., & Zhang, Y. (2011). Harmony and conflict: A cross-cultural investigation in China and Australia. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 42(5), 795-816.
Liu, S., Luksyte, A., Zhou, L., Shi, J., & Wang, M. (2015). Overqualification and counterproductive work behaviors: Examining a moderated mediation model. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 36(2), 250-271. doi:10.1002/job.1979
Liu, S., & Wang, M. (2012). Perceived overqualification: A review and recommendations for research and practice. In The role of the economic crisis on occupational stress and well being (pp. 1-42): Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Luksyte, A., Sady, K., & Spitzmueller, C. (2009). Perceived overqualification and voluntary turnover in the boundaryless careers context. Paper presented at the symposium at the annual meeting of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, New Orleans, LA.
Luksyte, A., & Spitzmueller, C. (2016). When are overqualified employees creative? It depends on contextual factors. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 37(5), 635-653.
Mahalanobis, P. C. (1936). On the generalized distance in statistics.
Maltarich, M. A., Reilly, G., & Nyberg, A. J. (2011). Objective and subjective overqualification: Distinctions, relationships, and a place for each in the literature. Industrial and organizational psychology, 4(2), 236-239.
Maynard, D. C., & Joseph, T. A. (2008). Are all part-time faculty underemployed? The influence of faculty status preference on satisfaction and commitment. Higher education, 55(2), 139.
Maynard, D. C., Joseph, T. A., & Maynard, A. M. (2006a). Underemployment, job attitudes, and turnover intentions. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 27(4), 509-536.
Maynard, D. C., Joseph, T. A., & Maynard, A. M. (2006b). Underemployment, job attitudes, and turnover intentions. Journal of Organizational Behavior: The International Journal of Industrial, Occupational and Organizational Psychology and Behavior, 27(4), 509-536.
Maynard, D. C., & Parfyonova, N. M. (2013). Perceived overqualification and withdrawal behaviours: Examining the roles of job attitudes and work values. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 86(3), 435-455. doi:10.1111/joop.12006
McAdams, D. P., & de St Aubin, E. (1992). A theory of generativity and its assessment through self-report, behavioral acts, and narrative themes in autobiography. Journal of personality and social psychology, 62(6), 1003.
McKee-Ryan, F. M., & Harvey, J. (2011). “I have a job, but...”: A review of underemployment. Journal of Management, 37(4), 962-996.
Meglino, B. M., & Korsgaard, A. (2004). Considering rational self-interest as a disposition: organizational implications of other orientation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89(6), 946.
Molm, L. D. (2003). Theoretical comparisons of forms of exchange. Sociological Theory, 21(1), 1-17.
Morgeson, F. P., & Humphrey, S. E. (2006). The Work Design Questionnaire (WDQ): developing and validating a comprehensive measure for assessing job design and the nature of work. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91(6), 1321.
Morrison, E. W., & Phelps, C. C. (1999). Taking charge at work: Extrarole efforts to initiate workplace change. Academy of Management Journal, 42(4), 403-419.
Munyon, T. P., Summers, J. K., Thompson, K. M., & Ferris, G. R. (2015). Political skill and work outcomes: A theoretical extension, meta‐analytic investigation, and agenda for the future. Personnel psychology, 68(1), 143-184.
Parker, S. K. (2014). Beyond motivation: Job and work design for development, health, ambidexterity, and more. Annual review of psychology, 65, 661-691.
Parker, S. K., Axtell, C. M., & Turner, N. (2001). Designing a safer workplace: Importance of job autonomy, communication quality, and supportive supervisors. J Occup Health Psychol, 6(3), 211.
Petty, N. J., Thomson, O. P., & Stew, G. (2012). Ready for a paradigm shift? Part 1: introducing the philosophy of qualitative research. Manual therapy, 17(4), 267-274.
Russell, Z. A., Ferris, G. R., Thompson, K. W., & Sikora, D. M. (2016). Overqualified human resources, career development experiences, and work outcomes: Leveraging an underutilized resource with political skill. Human Resource Management Review, 26(2), 125-135. doi:10.1016/j.hrmr.2015.09.008
Stephens, J. P., Heaphy, E., & Dutton, J. E. (2012). High quality connections. The Oxford handbook of positive organizational scholarship, 385-399.
Stockard, J., & Lehman, M. B. (2004). Influences on the satisfaction and retention of 1st-year teachers: The importance of effective school management. Educational Administration Quarterly, 40(5), 742-771.
Treadway, D. C., Adams, G., Hanes, T. J., Perrewé, P. L., Magnusen, M. J., & Ferris, G. R. (2014). The roles of recruiter political skill and performance resource leveraging in NCAA football recruitment effectiveness. Journal of management, 40(6), 1607-1626.
Unsworth, K. L., & Clegg, C. W. (2010). Why do employees undertake creative action? Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 83(1), 77-99.
Van Dyne, L., & LePine, J. A. (1998). Helping and voice extra-role behaviors: Evidence of construct and predictive validity. Academy of Management Journal, 41(1), 108-119.
Wiśniewski, W. (1990). The job satisfaction of teachers in Poland. Comparative Education, 26(2-3), 299-306.
Wu, C. H., Tian, A. W., Luksyte, A., & Spitzmueller, C. (2017). On the association between perceived overqualification and adaptive behavior. Personnel Review, 46(2), 339-354. doi:10.1108/PR-05-2015-0134
Zalesny, M. D., & Ford, J. K. (1990). Extending the social information processing perspective: New links to attitudes, behaviors, and perceptions. Organizational behavior and human decision processes, 47(2), 205-246.
Zhang, M. J., Law, K. S., & Lin, B. (2016). You think you are big fish in a small pond? Perceived overqualification, goal orientations, and proactivity at work. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 37(1), 61-84. doi:10.1002/job.2024
Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal of Research in Business and Social Science (2147- 4478)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Authors contributing to IJRBS agree to publish their articles under the Creative Commons Attribution- 4.0 NC license, allowing third parties to share their work (copy, distribute, transmit) and to adapt it, under the condition that the authors are given credit, that the work is not used for commercial purposes, and that in the event of reuse or distribution, the terms of this license are made clear. Authors retain copyright of their work, with first publication rights granted to IJRBS. However, authors are required to transfer copyrights associated with commercial use to the Publisher. The authors agree to the terms of this Copyright Notice, which will apply to this submission if and when it is published by this journal
Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously( exceptin the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other languages, without the written consent of the Publisher. The Editors reserve the right to edit or otherwise alter all contributions, but authors will receive proofs for approval before publication