Influence of directive and achievement oriented path-goal leadership styles on employee performance of coffee trading companies in Kenya

  • Rozmina Rana United States International University-Africa
  • George K'Aol
  • Michael Kirubi
Keywords: Leadership


The study sought to examine the extent to which directive and achievement-oriented path-goal leadership styles influence employee performance of coffee trading companies in Kenya. The positivism philosophy was adopted and the design used was a descriptive correlational research design. The population for the study was 180 senior managers of coffee trading companies in Kenya. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. The descriptive statistics were mean and standard deviation while the inferential statistical analysis included correlational analysis, chi-square and multiple linear regression analysis. The results of the multiple linear regression analysis revealed that directive leadership style negatively and significantly predict employee performance, R2= 0.035, F(1, 114) = 4.141,  p≤ .05, β = -0.153, p≤ .05. Multiple linear regression analysis further revealed that achievement-oriented leadership style positively and significantly predicted employee performance, R2= 0.161, F(1, 116) = 20.686, p ≤. .05, β = 0.391, p≤ .05. The study provided a unique contribution to the theory and practice of leadership by contributing to knowledge in the application of Path-goal leadership styles in coffee trading companies. The study findings led to the conclusion that the use of a directive leadership style in coffee trading companies can adversely affect performance and leaders should exercise caution if they have to use this style.


Abbah, T. M. (2014). Employee Motivation: The Key to Effective Organizational Management in Nigeria. IOSR Journal of Business and Management (IOSR-JBM) e-ISSN: 2278-487X, p-ISSN: 2319-7668 , Vol 16, Issue 4. Version I, pp 01-08.

Baregheh, A., Rowley, J., & Sambrook, S. (2015). Towards a multidisciplinary definition of innovation. Management Decision , 47, 1323–1339.

Basit, A., Sebastian, V., & Hassan, Z. (2017). Impact of leadership style on employee performance (A Case study on a private organization in Malaysia). International Journal of Accounting & Business Management Vol. 5 (No.2), November, 2017 ISSN: 2289-4519 DOI: 24924/ijabm/2017.11/v5.iss2/112.130

Casson, R. J., Franzco, & Farmer, L. D. M. (2014). Understanding and checking the assumptions of linear regression: a primer for medical researchers. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology 2014; 42: 590–596 doi: 10.1111/ceo.12358

Flamholtz, E. G., & Randell, Y (2016). Growing Pains: Building Sustainably Successful Organizations. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New Jersey 244-320

Henseler, J., Ringle, C. M., & Sinkovics, R. R. (2015). “The use of partial least squares path modeling in international marketing”. Advances in International Marketing. vol.20, 277–319.

Hui, K. L., Xin, L. J., Di, L. S., Yung, N. K., & Ying, S. K. (2014). Working Performance in Financial Sector, (August).

Ijah, A. (2012). Leadership styles of principals and job performance of staff in secondary schools in Delta state of Nigeria. An international journal of arts and humanities, Vol 2, 224-245. ISSN 2225-8590.

International Coffee Organization (ICO) (2015). Sustainability of the Coffee Sector in Africa. International Coffee Council, 114 (5) Rev.1

Iqbal, N., Anwar, S., & Haider, N. (2015). Effects of leadership style on employee performance. Arabian journal of business management review, 5(146).

Javaid, M. F. (2012). Leadership Style enhances the employee Organizational Commitment: A case study of educational institutions in Lahore. Journal of management, statistics and social sciences, 1(1), 64-77.

Khalid, S., & Irshad, M. Z. (2015). Job Satisfaction among Bank Employees in Punjab, Pakistan: A Comparative Study. European journals of social sciences , 17 (4), 570-577.

Khuong, M. N., & Hoang, M. D. (2015). The effects of leadership styles on employee motivation in auditing companies in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. International Journal of trade, economics and finance, 6( 4), 210-217.

Kiboss, J. K., & Jemiryott, H. K. (2014). Principals’ Leadership Styles and Secondary School Teachers’ Job Satisfaction in Nandi South District, Kenya. Journal of Education and Human Development , 3( 2), 493-509 ISSN: 2334-296X (Print), 2334-2978.

Kieyah, J., & Lesiyampe, L. (2016). Report of the National Task Force on Coffee Sub-Sector Reforms

Lumbasi, G., K'Aol, G., & Ouma, C. (2016). The Effect of Achievement Oriented Leadership Style on the Performance of COYA Senior Managers in Kenya. International Journal of Novel Research in Marketing Management and Economics, , 3(2), 118-125, ISSN 2394-7322.

Lussier, R. N., & Achua, C. F. (2013). Leadership: Theory, Application and Skill Development, pp. 161-170.

Mahdi, O. R., Mohd, E. S., & Almsafir, M. K. (2014). Empirical Study on the Impact of Leadership On Organizational Commitment in Plantation Companies in Malaysia, Elsevier Ltd. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences , 109, 1076–1087.

Marshall, V. & Rossman, S. A. (2016). The Oxford Handbook of Participation in Organizations. Oxford University Press.

Mbithi, D. (2018). Nairobi Coffee Exchange. Retrieved from

Mcshane, S. L., & Von Glinow, M. A. (2012). Organizational Behavior: The power of People and Leadership in What the Best MBAs Know,. New York: McGraw-Hill, 187-203.

Mohammed, U., Yusuf, M., Sanni, M. I., Ifeyinwa, N. T., Bature, U. N., & Kazeem, O. A. (2014). The Relationship between Leadership Styles and Employees’ Performance in Organizations (A Study of Selected Business Organizations in Federal Capital Territory, European Journal of Business and Management Online , 6(22)2222-2839.

Monroy L., Mulinge W., Witwer M. (2013), Analysis of incentives and disincentives for coffee in Kenya. Technical notes series, MAFAP, FAO, Rome.

Nikoloski, K. (2015). Leadership and Management: Practice of the Art of Influence. Annals of the „Constantin Brâncuşi” University of Târgu Jiu, , Economy Series, Issue 1, volume II/2015.

Northouse, P. G. (2016). Leadership: Theory and practice (7th edition). Thousand Oaks, California, USA, Sage Publications.

Ojokuku, R. M., Odetayo, T. A., & Sajuyigbe, A. S. (2014). Impact of leadership style on organizational performance : A case study of Nigerian Banks. American Journal of Business and Management , 1(4), 202–207.

Reio, T. G., & Shuck, B. (2015). Exploratory Factor Analysis: Implications for Theory, Research, and Practice. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 17(1), 12–25.

Rennie, M., Meaney, M., Hazlewood, J., Kumra, G., & Dias, A. K. (2015). McKinsey on Organization Agility and Organization Design, pp 6-28

Sougui, A. O., Bon, A. T., & Hassan, H. M. (2015). The Impact of Leadership Styles on Employees’ performance in Telecom Engineering companies,. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences , 8(4).

Stoker, J. I. (2014). Effects of team tenure and leadership in self-managing teams. Personnel Review , 37(5), 564-582.

Wakabi, B. M. (2016). Leadership style and staff retention in organizations. International Journal of Science and Research, 5(1), pp. 412-416.

Wanjala, M. N. (2014). The influence of leadership style on employees' job performance in the hospitality industry: case study of safari park hotel. Unpublished manuscript, United States Inernational University, Nairobi, Kenya.

Wart, M. V. (2015). Dynamics of Leadership in Public Service,. Armonk, NY, London, England,: M. E. Sharpe.

Wendt, H., Euwema, M.C., & Emmerik, H. (2009). Leadership and team cohesiveness across cultures, Leadership Quarterly, Vol 20, 358-370.

Yukl, G. (2015). Leadership in organizations (7th ed.). Upper Saddle Rive, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

How to Cite
Rana, R., K’Aol, G., & Kirubi, M. (2019). Influence of directive and achievement oriented path-goal leadership styles on employee performance of coffee trading companies in Kenya. International Journal of Research in Business and Social Science (2147- 4478), 8(6), 137-147.