The effect of perceived social support and life orientation on anxiety caused by online education in Covid 19 conditions
Keywords:Online Education, Pandemic, Anxiety, Life Orientations, Perceived Social Support
The Covid-19 pandemic has created a disadvantaged student population due to the sudden obligation for distance learning. Poor performance of online educational tools, risk of transmission and staying at home cause stress and anxiety in students. This research examines the effects of usability and accessibility of the online learning system on students’ anxiety in presence of students’ perceived social support as well as students’ perceived optimistic/pessimistic life orientation. The survey instrument prepared for this purpose includes questions about the online learning system used, Covid-19 anxiety, life orientation and perceived social support. Web-based questionnaires were collected from 5,682 students from different universities and the data was analyzed for the role of social support and life orientation on anxiety caused by stress born of distance learning. Findings show that accessibility has a negative effect on anxiety while the effect of perceived social support on access problems could not be ascertained. It was determined that the optimism dimension had a moderating effect on students’ anxiety and the pessimism dimension had a mediating effect. The research results are consistent with the literature.
Ali, W. (2020). Online and Remote Learning in Higher Education Institutes: A Necessity in light of COVID-19 Pandemic. Higher Education, 10(3), 16-25. https://doi.org/10.5539/hes.v10n3p16
Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(6), 1173-1182. https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-3518.104.22.1683
Barrera, M. (1986). Distinctions between social support concepts, measures, and models. American Journal of Community Psychology, 14(4), 413-445. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00922627
Bolger, N., Zuckerman, A., & Kessler, R.C. (2000). Invisible support and adjustment to stress. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79(6), 953-961. https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-3522.214.171.1243
Bradburn, N. (1969). The Structure of Psychological Well-Being. Chicago: Aldine Pub. Co.
Chang, E. C., Maydeu-Olivares, A., & D'Zurilla, T. J. (1997). Optimism and pessimism as partially independent constructs: Relationship to positive and negative affectivity and psychological well-being. Personality and Individual Differences, 23, 433-440. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0191-8869(97)80009-8
Chin, W. W., Marcolin, B. L., & Newsted, P. R. (2003). A partial least squares latent variable modeling approach for measuring interaction effects: Results from a Monte Carlo simulation study and an electronic-mail emotion/adoption study. Information Systems Research, 14(2), 189-217. https://doi.org/10.1287/isre.126.96.36.19918
Cutrona, C. E., & Russell, D. W. (1987). The provisions of social relationships and adaptation to stress. Advances in Personal Relationships, 1(1), 37-67.
Davis, M. C., & Swan, P. D. (1999). Association of negative and positive social ties with fibrinogen levels in young women. Health Psychology, 18(2), 131-139. https://doi.org/10.1037//0278-6188.8.131.52.
Dember, W. N., Martin, S. H., Hummer, M. K., Howe, S. R., & Melton, R. S. (1989). The measurement of optimism and pessimism. Current Psychology: Research and Reviews, 8(2), 102-119. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02686675
Dunbar, M., Ford, G., & Hunt, K. (1998). Why is the receipt of social support associated with increased psychological distress? An examination of three hypotheses. Psychology and Health, 13(3), 527-544. https://doi.org/10.1080/08870449808407308
Eker, D., & Arkar, H. (1995). Perceived social support: psychometric properties of the MSPSS in normal and pathological groups in a developing country. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 30(3), 121-126. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00802040
Eker, D., Arkar, H., & Yaldiz, H. (2001). Çok Boyutlu Alg?lanan Sosyal Destek Ölçe?i'nin gözden geçirilmi? formunun faktör yap?s?, geçerlik ve güvenirli?i. Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, 12(1), 17-25.
Fang, X. 2018. Empirical Analysis of Affirmation of National Boutique Online Open Courses. China Higher Education Research, 7, 94-99. https://doi.org/10.16298/j.cnki.1004-3667.2018.07.16
Fisher, J. D., Nadler, A., & Whitcher-Alagna, S. (1982). Recipient reactions to aid. Psychological Bulletin, 91(1), 27. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.91.1.27
Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error: Algebra and statistics. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(3), 382-388. https://doi.org/10.2307/3150980.
Hair, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C. M., Sarstedt, M., & Thiele, K. O. (2017). Mirror, Mirror on the Wall: A Comparative Evaluation Of Composite-Based Structural Equation Modeling Methods, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 45(5), 616-632. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11747-017-0517-x
Hirsh, B. (1980). “Natural support systems and coping process: Creating personal communities”. In Social networks and social support, ed. B. H. Gottlieb, (Beverly Hills, CA: SAGE Publications), 149-170.
Huang, R. H., Liu, D. J., Tlili, A., Yang, J. F., & Wang, H. (2020). Handbook on facilitating flexible learning during educational disruption: The Chinese experience in maintaining undisrupted learning in pandemi outbreak. Retrieved from https://iite.unesco.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/03/Handbook-on-Facilitating-Flexible-Learning-in-COVID -19-Outbreak-SLIBNU-V1.2-20200315.pdf
Jeng, J. (2005). Usability assessment of academic digital libraries: effectiveness, efficiency, satisfaction, and learnability. Libri, 55, 96-121. https://doi.org/10.1515/LIBR.2005.96
Karamustafal?o?lu, O., & Yumrukçal, H. (2011). Depression and anxiety disorders. ?i?li Etfal Hastanesi T?p Bülteni, 45(2), 65-74.
Kazarian, S. S., & McCabe, S. B. (1991). Dimensions of social support in the MSPSS: Factorial structure, reliability, and theoretical implications. Journal of Community Psychology, 19(2), 150-160. https://doi.org/10.1002/1520-6629(199104)19:2<150::AID-JCOP2290190206>3.0.CO;2-J
Konkan, R., ?enormanc?, Ö., Güçlü, O., Ayd?n, E. & Sungur, M. Z. (2013). Common Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) Test Turkish adaptation, validity and reliability. Noropsikiyatri Ar?ivi, 50(1), 53-59. https://doi.org/10.4274/npa.y6308
Lakey, B., & Cassady, P. B. (1990). Cognitive processes in perceived social support. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59(2), 337-343. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35184.108.40.2067
Lakey, B., & Cronin, A. (2008). “Low social support and major depression: Research, theory and methodological issues,” In Risk Factors in Depression, eds. K S. Dobson and D. J.A. Dozois, (Elsevier/Academic Press, San Diego, CA), 385-408.
Lakey, B., & Orehek, E. (2011). Relational regulation theory: A new approach to explain the link between perceived social support and mental health. Psychological Review, 118(3), 482-495. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0023477
Marshall, G. N., Wortman, C. B., Kusulas, J. W., Hervig, L. K., & Vickers, Jr., R. R. (1992). Distinguishing optimism from pessimism: Relations to fundamental dimensions of mood and personality. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 62(6), 1067-1074. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35220.127.116.117
Mirzajani, H., Mahmud, R., Fauzi Mohd Ayub, A., & Wong, S. L. (2016). Teachers' acceptance of ICT and its integration in the classroom. Quality Assurance in Education, 24(1), 26-40. https://doi.org/10.1108/QAE-06-2014-0025
Murgatrotd, S. (2020). COVID-19 and online learning, Alberta, Canada. Journal of Educational Technology, 9(3), 25-32. https://doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.31132.85120
Myers, L. B., & Steed, L. (1999). The relationship between dispositional optimism, dispositional pessimism, repressive coping and trait anxiety. Personality and Individual Differences, 27(6), 1261-1272. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0191-8869(99)00071-9
Nielsen, J. (2012). Usability 101: Introduction to Usability, Available at: http://www.nngroup.com/articles/usability-101-introduction-to-usability/
Rook, K. S. (1984). The negative side of social interaction: impact on psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46(5), 1097-1108. https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-3518.104.22.1687
Ruzgar, N. S. (2005). A Research on the Purpose of Internet usage and learning via internet. The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 4(4), 27-32. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1102385.pdf
Scheier, M. F., & Carver, C. S. (1985). Optimism, coping, and health: Assessment and implications of generalized outcome expectancies. Health Psychology, 4(3), 219-247. https://doi.org/10.1037//0278-622.214.171.124
Scheier, M. F., & Carver, C. S. (1992). Effects of optimism on psychological and physical well-being: Theoretical overview and empirical update. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 16, 201-229. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01173489
Scheier, M. F., Carver, C. S., & Bridges, M. W. (1994). Distinguishing optimism from neuroticism (and trait anxiety, self-mastery, and self-esteem): a reevaluation of the Life Orientation Test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67(6), 1063-1078. https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-35126.96.36.1993
Schwarzer, R., & Leppin, A. (1991). Social support and health: A theoretical and empirical overview. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 8(1), 99-127. https://doi.org/10.1177/0265407591081005
Shava, H., Chinyamurindi, W., & Somdyala, A. (2016). An investigation into the usage of mobile phones among technical and vocational educational and training students in South Africa. South African Journal of Information Management, 18(1), 1-8. http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/sajim.v18i1.716
Sonmez Cakir, F., & Adiguzel, Z. (2020). Analysis of Leader Effectiveness in Organization and Knowledge Sharing Behavior on Employees and Organization. SAGE Open, 10(1), 1-14, https://doi.org/10.1177/2158244020914634
Spitzer, R. L., Kroenke, K., Williams, J. B., & Löwe, B. (2006). A brief measure for assessing generalized anxiety disorder: the GAD-7. Archives of Internal Medicine, 166(10), 1092-1097. https://doi.org/10.1001/archinte.166.10.1092
Taylor, S. E., Kemeny, M. E., Aspinwall, L. G., Schneider, S. G., Rodriguez, R., & Herbert, M. (1992). Optimism, coping, psychological distress, and high-risk sexual behavior among men at risk for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 63 (3), 460-473. https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-35188.8.131.520
Tenenhaus, M., Vinzi, V. E., Chatelin, Y. M., & Lauro, C. (2005). PLS path modeling. Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, 48(1), 159-205. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.csda.2004.03.005
Uchino, B. N. (2009). Understanding the links between social support and physical health: A life-span perspective with emphasis on the separability of perceived and received support. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 4(3), 236-255. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-6924.2009.01122.x
Vasserman, L. I., Iovlev, B. V., Isayeva, Ye. R., Trifonova, Ye. A., Shchelkova, O. YU., Novozhilova, M. YU., & Vuks, A. YA. (2008). Metodika dlya psikhologicheskoy diagnostiki sovladayushchego povedeniya v stressovykh i problemnykh dlya lichnosti situatsiyakh. [Technique for psychological diagnosis of coping behaviour in stressful and problem-solving situations]. St. Petersburg: V.M. Bechterew Psychoneurological Institute. (In Russian)
Vaux, A., & Harrison, D. (1985). Support network characteristics associated with support satisfaction and perceived support. American Journal of Community Psychology, 13(3), 245-268. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00914932
Yilmaz, E., Yilmaz, E., & Karaca, F. (2008). Examining the social support and loneliness levels of university students. Genel Tip Dergisi, 18(2),71-79. http://184.108.40.206/geneltip/upload/sayi/56/GTD-00447.pdf
Zhang, Y., Liu, X., Fan, F., Zhou, P., & Bai, Q. (2015). Factors Influencing on Teachers' ICT Application Level of Primary and Secondary Schools: An Empirical Analysis Based on the 14 cities of X Province. Modern Educational Technology, 25, 44-50. (in Chinese)
Zhang, W., Wang, Y., Yang, L., & Wang, C. (2020). Suspending classes without stopping learning: China's education emergency management policy in the COVID-19 outbreak. Journal of Risk Financial Management, 13(3), 55. https://doi.org/10.3390/jrfm13030055
Zimet, G. D., Dahlem, N. W., Zimet, S. G., & Farley, G. K. (1988). The multidimensional scale of perceived social support. Journal of Personality Assessment, 52(1), 30-41. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327752jpa5201_2
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Mine Halis, Duygu Yildirim
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
For all articles published in IJRBS, copyright is retained by the authors. Articles are licensed under an open access Creative Commons CC BY 4.0 license, meaning that anyone may download and read the paper for free. In addition, the article may be reused and quoted provided that the original published version is cited. These conditions allow for maximum use and exposure of the work, while ensuring that the authors receive proper credit.