Including the excluded in the integrated development planning process for improved community participation


  • John Mamokhere University of Johannesburg, College of Business and Economics School of Public Management, Governance and Public Policy, Auckland Park Campus, South Africa
  • Daniel F Meyer University of Johannesburg, College of Business and Economics School of Public Management, Governance and Public Policy, Auckland Park Campus, South Africa



Community participation, Constitution, IDP Process, Tzaneen Municipal Area, South Africa


This article aims to assess the Integrated Development Planning (IDP) process for improved community participation. The IDP process was developed to improve strategic planning and community participation at the municipal level. Many South African municipalities have been struggling to use the IDP process to improve community participation. The methodology included 400 respondents who were chosen through a probability sampling technique and probed to complete the online survey using a closed-ended questionnaire guide, and ten respondents were also chosen through a non-probability sampling technique and were face-to-face interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide. The key findings revealed that poor community participation exists in the study area due to a lack of encouragement from responsible authorities. The Tzaneen municipality does not provide adequate feedback to the communities, and the inputs of the communities are not considered. There is a continuous lack of community consultation during the annual review of the IDP. The ineffective IDP process for improved community participation presents several challenges. Thus, this article concluded by providing a few recommendations to enhance the application of the IDP process and community participation. The Tzaneen municipal area should at all times uphold democratic principles by ensuring active public participation, transparency, and openness in municipal affairs. It also recommends making it easier for marginalised and previously disadvantaged people to participate in municipal policy and decision-making without prejudice. South African municipalities, including Tzaneen municipality, should develop and innovate institutional, and organisational capabilities to better utilise their resources, mitigate socio-economic challenges and enhance service delivery.


Download data is not yet available.


Arnstein, S.R. (1969). A ladder of citizen participation. Journal of the American Institute of planners, 35(4), 216-224.

Arnstein, S.R. (1971). A Ladder of Citizen Participation. Journal of the American Planning Association, 35(4), 216-224.

Asha, A.A., & Makalela, K. I. (2020). Challenges in the implementation of integrated development plan and service delivery in Lepelle-Nkumphi Municipality, Limpopo province. International Journal of Economics and Finance, 12(1).

Bhatti, N., Maitlo, G. M., Shaikh, N., Hashmi, M. A., & Shaikh, F. M. (2012). The impact of autocratic and democratic leadership style on job satisfaction. International business research, 5(2), 192.

Bless, C., Higson-Smith, C., & Kagee, A. (2006). Fundamentals of social research methods: An African perspective. Juta and Company Ltd.

Burger, A., & Silima, T. (2006). Sampling and sampling design. Journal of Public Administration, 41(3), 656-668.

Burns, N., & Grove, S.K. (200)5. The practice of nursing research: conduct, critique, and utilisation. 5thedn. Missouri: Elsevier, 52.

Creswell, J.W., & Pablo-Clark, V.L. (2011). Designing and conducting mixed methods research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Desai, V. (2009). Community participation in development in Desai, V and Potter, R (eds), The campion to development studies (2nd ed). London: Hodder Education, 115-119.

Dlamini, B., & Reddy, P.S. (2018). Theory and practice of integrated development planning-a case study of Umtshezi Local Municipality in the KwaZulu-Natal Province of South Africa. African Journal of Public Affairs, 10(1), 1-24.

Dlamini, B.I., Zogli, L.K.J. & Hlongwane, T. 2021. Assessing the Integrated Development Plan as a Performance Management System in a Municipality. International Journal of Entrepreneurship, 25, 1-21.

Dyum, T. (2020). The extent of public participation in the formulation of the IDP: The case of Beaufort West. Masters Dissertation. Cape Town: University of Western Cape.

Education and Training Unit. (2020). Integrated Development Planning for Local Government. Johannesburg: ETU. Retrieved at Accessed on 17 Aug 2021.

Enwereji, P.C. & Uwizeyimana, D.E. (2020). Enhancing Democracy through Public Participation Process during Covid-19 Pandemic: A Review. Gender & Behaviour, 18(4), 16873-16888.

Foster, K. (2019). South Africa’s Tools for Urban Public Participation. Urban Governance Paper Series.

Greater Tzaneen Local Municipality. (2020). IDP 2020/2021 - Greater Tzaneen Municipality. Retrieved at Accessed on 11 Feb 2021.

Holman, P. (2010). Democratic decision making that works. June 2010. Retr. At Acc. on 06 April 2021.

Islam, F. (2015). New Public Management (NPM): A dominating paradigm in public sectors. African Journal of Political Science and International Relations, 9(4), 141-152.

Kgobe, F. K. L., & Mamokhere, J. (2021). The Value of Public Participation in Land-Use Planning for Redeeming Congestion in South African Municipalities. Technium Social Sciences Journal, 26, 17-31.

Makalela, K.I. (2017). Integrated development planning as a strategy for poverty alleviation: the dilemma within the ambit of South Africa. International Conference on Public Administration and Development Alternatives (IPADA).

Malatji, K.P. (2019). Community participation in development projects as Tickyline Village in Tzaneen. Masters Dissertation. Thohoyandou: University of Venda.

Mamokhere, J. (2020). An assessment of reasons behind service delivery protests: A case of Greater Tzaneen Municipality. Journal of Public Affairs, 20(2), p.e2049.

Mamokhere, J., Musitha, M.E. & Netshidzivhani, V.M. (2021). The implementation of the basic values and principles governing public administration and service delivery in South Africa. Journal of Public Affairs, p.e2627.

Manyaka, R.K., & Madzivhandila, T.S. (2013). Conceptualisation of Integrated Development Planning. In Conference Proceedings published by the South African Association of Public Administration and Management (SPAM). Department of Public Administration & Management, Tshwane University of Technology.

Marston, C., Renedo, A., & Miles, S. (2020). Community participation is crucial in a pandemic. The Lancet, 395(10238), 676-1678.

Maserumule, M.H. (2009). Good Governance in the New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD): A Public Administration Perspective. Doctoral dissertation. Pretoria: University of South Africa.

Mashamaite, K., & Madzivhandila, A. (2014). Strengthening community participation in the Integrated Development Planning process for effective public service delivery in the rural Limpopo Province. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 5(25), 225-225.

Mashamba, N.S. (2008). The state of IDP in the Limpopo Province. Journal of Public Administration, 43(si-2), 421-435.

Mashiachidi, M., & Moeti, K. (2016). Community participation and integrated development planning: a case study of Aganang Local Municipality in South Africa. Journal of Public Administration, 51(3), 399-407.

Mathebula, N.E. (2018). Integrated development plan implementation and the enhancement of service delivery: Is there a link?. International Conference on Public Administration and Development Alternatives 04-06 July 2018, Stellenbosch University, Saldanha Bay, South Africa.

Mbelengwa, S. (2016). Community participation in the Integrated Development Plan of the City of Johannesburg municipality. Masters dissertation. Pretoria: University of Pretoria.

McCallister, J. (2019). Democratic Decision-Making Style: Definition & Overview. Retrieved at Accessed on 06 April 2021.

Mnguni, S. (2018). The role of public participation in facilitating integrated development planning for improvement of services in uMhlathuze Local Municipality. Doctoral dissertation. Durban: University of Zululand.

Molaba, K.E. (2016). Community participation in integrated development planning of the Lepelle-Nkumpi local municipality. Doctoral dissertation. Pretoria: University of South Africa.

Morse, J.M. (1991). Approaches to qualitative-quantitative methodological triangulation. Nursing Research, 40(2), 120-123.

Munzhedzi, P.H. (2016). Fostering public accountability in South Africa: A reflection on challenges and successes. TD: The Journal for Transdisciplinary Research in Southern Africa, 12(1), 1-7.

Munzhedzi, P.H. (2020). Evaluating the efficacy of municipal policy implementation in South Africa: challenges and prospects. African Journal of Governance and Development, 9(1), 89-105.

Munzhedzi, P.H. (2021). An evaluation of the application of the new public management principles in the South African municipalities. Journal of Public Affairs, 21(1), p.e2132.

Oranje, M., Harrison, P., Van Huyssteen, E., & Meyer, E. (2000). A policy paper on integrated development planning, prepared for the South African Department for Provincial and Local Government, October 2000. Durban: ACCORD.

Quick, K.S., & Bryson, J.M. (2016). Public participation. In Handbook on theories of governance. UK: Edward Elgar Publishing.

Rowe, G., & Frewer, L.J. (2005). A typology of public engagement mechanisms. Science, Techn. & Human Values, 30(2), 251-290.

RSA. (1996). The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa of 1996. Pretoria: Government Printer.

RSA. (1998). Municipal Structures Act of 1998 (Act 117 of 1998). Pretoria: Government Printer.

RSA. (1998). The White Paper on Local Government. 1998. The White Paper on Local Government, 1998. Pretoria: Gov.Printer.

RSA. (2000). Municipal Systems Act of 2000. (Act 32 of 2000). Pretoria: Government Printer.

Salkind, N.J. (2012). Exploring Research. (6th Edition). Boston: Pearson.

Tshishonga, N. (2016). Integrated Development Planning (IDP)–A Municipal Profiling for Service Delivery: An Asset-Based Perspective. South African Association of Public Administration and Management (SPAM), 376.

Ulrich, S., & Wenzel, F. (2017). Democratic decision-making processes: Based on the ‘Betzavta’-approach. Retrieved at Accessed on 06 April 2021.

World Health Organization. (2002). Health promotion and community participation. Environmental health in emergencies and disasters: a practical guide. WHO, 207-9.

Zwane, V.Z.J. (2020). Community participation in the Integrated Development Plan (IDP) of the Umzumbe Local Municipality. Masters Dissertation. Pretoria: University of South Africa.

Zwane, Z., & Matsiliza, N. S. (2022). Stakeholders’ involvement in service delivery at eDumbe Municipality. Journal of Local Government Research and Innovation, 3, 45.




How to Cite

Mamokhere, J., & Meyer, D. F. (2022). Including the excluded in the integrated development planning process for improved community participation. International Journal of Research in Business and Social Science (2147- 4478), 11(4), 286–299.



Interdisciplinary Studies in Humanities & Social Sciences