Analysing factors contributing to road traffic accidents in South Africa
Keywords:Road Traffic Accidents, Road Users, Law enforcement, Human Factors and South Africa
Road Traffic accidents is a major problem worldwide even in South Africa is a leading killer on the road. Human factor is a main contributory factor to fatalities on the road as many road users are not adhering to the rules of the road. The inability of road users to understand and interpret the rules of the road is a major problem on South African roads. This article focus on preventive measures to curb factors contributing to road traffic accidents in South Africa. The article is based on a qualitatively rooted methodology including a wide range of primary and secondary sources such as documents from Road Traffic Management Corporation, academic books, articles, dissertations, thesis and reports from non-governmental organisations focusing on road safety. The article further draws on the findings from the world on road safety and formulate steps to counteract road traffic accidents in South Africa. Awareness of road safety play a critical component in changing the behaviour of the road users other than just focusing on reducing road traffic accidents. The research based key steps leading to the prevention of road traffic accidents. The first step related to increasing law enforcement officials on the road; awareness campaigns to change the behaviour of road users; capacitate law enforcement agencies with resources to address non-compliance on the road; provide anti- corruption strategies in the law enforcement agencies.
Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behaviour. Organizational behaviour and human decision processes. Available online: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/074959789190020t. Accessed on 17/10/2017.
Ajzen,Ii. (2014). The theory of planned behaviour is alive and well, and not ready to retire: a commentary on sniehotta, presseau and araújo-soares. Health psychology review, 9. https://doi.org/10.1080/17437199.2014.883474 [pubmed].
Armitge, C.I. & Conner, M. (2001). Efficacy of the theory of planned behaviour: a meta-analytic review. British journal of social psychology, 40. [pubmed].
Arrive Alive. (2015). Speeding, safe driving and road crashes. Available online https://www.arrivealive.co.za/speeding-road-safety-and-accidents. Accessed on 06/03/2022.
Arrive Alive. (2017). Corruption, traffic enforcement and road safety. Available online: https://www.arrivealive.co.za/corruption-traffic-enforcement-and-road-safety. Accessed on 07/10/2017.
Arrive alive. (2018). Corruption, traffic enforcement and road safety. Available online: https://www.arrivealive.co.za/corruption-traffic-enforcement-and-road-safety. Accessed on 21/02/2018.
Arrive alive. (2021). Corruption, traffic enforcement and road safety. Available online https://www.arrivealive.mobi/corruption-traffic-enforcement-and-road-safety. Accessed on 09/03/2022.
Arrive alive. (2022). Speed as a contributory factor to road traffic crashes. Available onlinehttps://www.arrivealive.co.za/speed-factor. Accessed on 06/03/2022.
Australian transport council. (2011). National road safety strategy 2011?2020. Available online: http://roadsafety.gov.au/nrss/files/nrss_2011_2020.pdf. Accessed on 16/09/2017
Bhat, Y.R. (2016). Reasons and solutions to road traffic accidents in india. Department of biotechnology, rashtreeya vidyalaya college of engineering, bengaluru-560059, india.
Clapp, J.D. Olsen, S.A. Beck, J.G. Palyo, S.A. Grant, D.M. & Gudmundsdottir B. ( 2011). The driving behavior survey: scale development and validation. Journal of anxiety disorders. 25. [pmc free article] [pubmed].
Díaz, E.M. (2002). Theory of planned behaviour and pedestrians’ intentions to violate traffic regulations. Transportation research part f: traffic psychology and behaviour. Available online: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/284692486_ theory_of_planned_behavior_and_pedestrians'_intentions_to_violate_traffic_regulations. Accessed on 17/10/2017.
Donegal road safety working group. (2016). Donegal road safety plan 2016?2021. Available online: http://www.donegalcoco.ie/media/donegalcountyc/ roadsafety/documents/donegal%20coco%20(a4%20road%20safety%20plan%20eng)%20[web].pdf. Accessed on 19/09/2017.
Evans, D. & Norman, P. (1998). Understanding pedestrians’ road crossing decisions: an application of the theory planned behaviour. Health education research:13. [pubmed].
Federal highway administration. (2011). National pedestrian safety campaign: step by step guide. Available online: https://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/ local_rural/pedcampaign/guide.cfm. Accessed on 03/10/2017.
Global status report on alcohol and health. (2014). Geneva: world health organization. Available online https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/112736/9789240692763_eng.pdf?sequence=1.accessed on 06/03/2022.
Government of South Africa. (2021). National anti-corruption strategy 2020-2030. Available online https://www.gov.za/sites/default/files/gcis_document/202105/national-anti-corruption-strategy-2020-2030.pdf. Accessed on 09/03/2022.
Haque, R., Clapoudis, N., King, M., Lewis, I., Hyde, M.K & Obst, P. (2012). Walking when intoxicated: an investigation of the factors which influence individuals ‘drink walking intentions. Available online: https://research-repository.griffith.edu.au/ bitstream/handle/10072/49734/82564_1.pdf?sequence=1. Accessed on 19/10/2017.
International transport forum. (2018). Road safety annual report 2018. Available online https://www.itf-oecd.org/road-safety-annual-report-2018. Accessed on 06/03/2022.
Kraft & Associates. (2022). Car accidents caused by speeding in dallas. Available online https://www.kraftlaw.com/car-accidents/causes-car-accidents/car-accidents-caused-by-speeding/. Accessed on 06/03/2022.
Lang, C., Tay, R., Watson, B., Edmonston, C. & O’connor, E. (2003). Drink walking: an examination of the related behaviour and attitudes of young people. In 2003 road safety research, policing and education conference – from research to action: conference proceedings (pp. 164–169). Sydney: nsw rta.
Matthews, G., Dorn, L., Hoyes, T.W., Davies, D.R., Glendon, A.I. & Taylor, R.G. (1998). Driver stress and performance on a driving simulator. Human factors. 40. [pubmed].
Mayou, r., Simken, s & Threlfall, j. (1991). The effects of road traffic accidents on driving behaviour. Injury. 22. [pubmed].
Morris, j., Marzano, m., Dandy, n & O’brien, l. (2012). Theories and models of behaviour and behaviour change. Available online: http://www.forestry.gov.uk/ pdf/behaviour_review_theory.pdf/$file/behaviour_review_theory.pdf. Accessed on 17/10/2017.
National institute on drug abuse. (2019). Drugged driving drug facts. Available onlinehttps://nida.nih.gov/publications/drugfacts/drugged-driving. Accessed on 06/03/2022.
National safety council. (2021). Speeding. Available online https://injuryfacts.nsc.org/motor-vehicle/motor-vehicle-safety-issues/speeding/. Accessed on 06/03/2022.
Ouellette, J.A. & Wood, W. (1998). Habit and intention in everyday life: the multiple processes by which past behaviour predicts future behaviour. Psychological bulletin 124.
Pedestrian & bicycle information centre. (2017). The role of law enforcement in pedestrian and bicycle safety programs. Available online: http://www.pedbikeinfo.org/programs/enforcement.cfm. Accessed on 07/10/2017.
Phaswana-Mafuya, N., & Davids, A. (2011). Drinking and driving and other risk-taking behaviours among university students in south africa. African journal for physical, health education, recreation & dance, 17(4), 753–761.
Republic of South Africa (rsa). (1996b). National road traffic act, no. 93 of 1996. Pretoria: government printers.
Road traffic management corporation (2018). State of road safety report. Available online https://www.rtmc.co.za/images/rtmc/docs/traffic_reports/calendar/calendar_jan_dec_2018.pdf. Accessed on 04/03/2022.
Road traffic management corporation. (2019). Updated annual performance plan 2019/2020. Available online updated annual performance plan 2019/2020. Accessed on 09/03/2022.
Romano, E. & Voas, R.B. (2011). Drug and alcohol involvement in four types of fatal crashes. Available onlinehttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmc3125880/. Accessed on 06/03/2022.
Royal society for the prevention of accidents (2022). Speeding. Available online https://www.rospa.com/road-safety/advice/drivers/speeding. Accessed on 06/03/2022.
Saunders, M., Lewis, P., & Thornhill, A. (2007). Formulating the research design. In m. Saunders, p. Lewis, & a. Thornhill (eds.), research methods for business students (pp. 130–161). Pearson education.
Smith, N. (2014). Road deaths marred by flawed statistics. Available online: http://www.bdlive.co.za/business/transport/2014/01/13/road-deaths-marred-byflawed- statistics. Accessed on 2017/01/11.
Supa quick. (2019). Distracted driving-a major cause of road accidents. Available online //www.supaquick.com/news-article/730/distracted-driving-a-major-cause-of-road-accidents. Accessed on 06/03/2022.
Taylor, J., Deane, F.P & Podd, J. (2007). Driving fear and driving skills: comparison between fearful and control samples using standardised on-road assessment. Behaviour research and therapy. 45. [pubmed].
Thebe, E.M. (2011). An evaluation of south african road safety promotion strategies with a selected social marketing model. Available online: https://repository.up.ac.za/bitstream/handle/2263/28733/03chapters4-5.pdf? Sequence=4. Accessed on 19/09/2017.
United states department of transportation. (2014). U.s. Transportation secretary foxx announces new initiative to enhance pedestrian and bicycle safety. [press release]. Available online: https://www.transportation.gov/ briefing-room/us-transportation-secretary-foxx-announces-new-initiative-enhance-pedestrian-and. Accessed on 03/10/2017.
United states department of transportation. (2019). Distracted driving. Available online https://www.nhtsa.gov/risky-driving/distracted-driving. Accessed on 06/03/2022.
United states department of transportation. (2019). Speeding. Available online https://www.nhtsa.gov/risky-driving/speeding. Accessed on 06/03/2022.
World health organisation. (2011). Mobile phone use: a growing problem of driver distraction. Who press, world health organization, 20 avenue appia, 1211 geneva 27, switzerland.
World health organisation. (2013). Pedestrian safety: a road safety manual for decision makers and practitioners. Geneva: who.
World health organisation.( 2016). Drug use and road safety. Available onlinehttps://www.who.int/publications/i/item/drug-use-and-road-safety. Accessed on 06/03/2022.
World health organisation. (2018). Road traffic injuries. Available online: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs358/en/. Accessed on 13/03/2018.
World health organisation. S.a. Chapter 5, conclusions and recommendations. Available online https://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/publications/road_traffic/world_report/chapter5.pdf. Accessed on 09/03/2022.
Xu, Y., Li, Y & Zhang, F. (2013). Pedestrians’ intention to jaywalk: automatic or planned? A study based on a dual-process model in china. Accident analysis & prevention, 50.
Zhao, X., Zhang, X., & Rong, J. (2014). The study of the effects of alcohol on drivers and driving performance on straight road. Available online https://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2014/607652/. Accessed on 03/03/2022.
Zhou R., Horrey, W.J. & Yu, R. (2009). The effect of conformity tendency on pedestrians’ road-crossing intentions in china, an application of the theory of planned behaviour. Accident analysis & prevention. 2009; 41.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Mmakwena Modipa
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
For all articles published in IJRBS, copyright is retained by the authors. Articles are licensed under an open access Creative Commons CC BY 4.0 license, meaning that anyone may download and read the paper for free. In addition, the article may be reused and quoted provided that the original published version is cited. These conditions allow for maximum use and exposure of the work, while ensuring that the authors receive proper credit.