The Effect of Positive Psychological Capital on Emotional Labor


  • Idil Tamer



Positive Psychology, Positive Psychology Capital, Emotional Labor


In modern age, positive psychological capital is as important as financial capital for organizational development and sustainability. Efficacy, hope, optimism, and resilience are the dimensions of positive psychological capital. Emotional labor is defined by Hochschild as control of self emotions at work by workers who have a high degree of contact with coworkers within the organization or with external clients, so as to create an expression, voice or body gesture which is acceptible to the clients. Emotional labor is analysized under three components: surface acting, deep acting and naturally felt emotions. This study is aimed to investigate the impact of positive psychological capital on emotional labor. So a research is conducted with the aim of exploring the relationship between the sub-dimensions of psychological capital and emotional labour.


Download data is not yet available.


Abraham, R. (1999). The impact of emotional dissonance on organizational commitment and intention to turnover. Journal of Psychology, 133, 441– 455. doi:10.1080/00223989909599754

Anderson, J.C., Gerbing, D.W. (1988), Structural equation modeling in practice: A review and recommended two-step approach, Psychological Bulletin, 103(3), 411-423.

Ashforth, B. E. & Humpherey, R. H. (1993). Emotional Labor in Service Roles: The Influence of Identitiy. Academy of Management Review, 18 (1), 88–115.

Avey, J.B., Luthans, F., Jensen, S.M (2009). Psychological Capital: A Positive Resource For Combating Employee Stress and Turnover. Human Resource Management, September – October.

Avey, J.B., Luthans, F., Smith, R.M., & Palmer, N.F. (2010). Impact of positive psychological capital on employee well-being over time. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 15, 17-28.

Avey, J.B., Luthans, F., & Youssef, C.M. (2010). The additive value of positive psychological capital in predicting work attitudes and behaviors. Journal of Management, 36, 430-452.

Avolio, B. J., & Luthans, F. (2006). The high impact leader: Moments matter in accelerating authentic leadership development. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman.

Bandura, A. (2000). Cultivate self-efficacy for personal and organizational effectiveness. In E. Locke (Ed.), Handbook of principles of organizational behavior (pp. 120-136). Oxford, UK: Blackwell.

Bandura, A., & Locke, E.A. (2003). Negative self-self-efficacy and goal effects revisited. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 87–99.

Baumeister, R. F., Bratslavsky, E., Muraven, M., & Tice, D. M. (1998). Ego depletion: Is the active self a limited resource? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 1252–1265. doi:10.1037/0022–3514.74.5.1252

Beal, D. J., Trougakos, J. P., Weiss, H. M., & Green, S. G. (2006). Episodic processes in emotional labor: Perceptions of affective delivery and regulation strategies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91, 1053–1065. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.91.5.1053

Brotheridge, C. M. & Grandey, A. A. (2002). Emotional Labor and Burnout: Comparing Two Perspectives of “People Work”. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 60, 17–39.

Brotheridge, C. M. & Lee, R. T. (2002). Testing a Conservation of Resources Model of the Dynamics of Emotional Labor. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 7 (1), 57–67.

Carver, C.S., & Scheier, M. (2003). Optimism. In S.J. Lopez & C.R. Snyder (Eds.), Positive psychological assessment: A handbook of models and measures (pp. 75- 89). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Chemers, M.M., Watson, C.B., & May, S.T. (2000). Dispositional affect and leadership effectiveness: A comparison of self-esteem, optimism, and efficacy. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 26, 267-277.

Cheung, F., & Tang, C. (2010). Effects of age, gender, and emotional labor strategies on job outcomes: Moderated mediation analyses. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-being, 2, 323–339. doi:10.1111/j.1758-0854.2010.01037.x

Cheung, F., Tang, C. S. & Tang, S. (2011). Psychological Capital as a Moderator Between Emotional Labor, Burnout, and Job Satisfaction Among School Teachers in China, International Journal of Stress Management, Vol. 18, No. 4, 348–371.

Cordes, C. L., & Dougherty, T. W. (1993). A review and an integration of research on job burnout, Academy of Management Review, 18(4), 621–656.

Côté, S. & Morgan, L. M. (2002). A Longtidudinal Analysis of the Association Between Emotion Regulation, Job Satisfaction, and Intentions to Quit. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 23, 947–962.

Côté , S. (2005). A social interaction model of the effects of emotion regulation on work strain. Academy of Management Review, 30, 509–530.

Curry, L. A., Snyder, C. R., Cook, D. I., Ruby, B. C., & Rehm, M. (1997). The role of hope in student-athlete academic and sport achievement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, 1257-1267.

Diefendorff, J. M. , Croyle, M. H. & Gosserand, R. H. (2005). The Dimensionality and Antecedents of Emotional Labor Strategies. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 66,

Glomb, T. M., Kammeyer-Mueller, J. D., & Rotundo, M. (2004). Emotional labor demands and compensating wage differentials. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89, 700–714.

Goldberg, L., & Grandey, A. (2007). Display rules versus display autonomy: Emotion regulation, emotional exhaustion, and task performance in a call center simulation. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 12, 301–318.

Grandey, A. A. (1999). The Effects of Emotional Labor: Employee Attitudes, Stress and Performance. Yayınlanmıs doktora tezi, Colorado State University, Colorado, 339–357.

Grandey, A. A. (2000). Emotion Regulation in the Workplace: A new Way to Conceptualize Emotional Labor. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 5 (1), 95–110.

Grandey, A. A. (2003). When “the show must go on”: Surface acting and deep acting as determinants of emotional exhaustion and peer-rated service delivery. Academy of management Journal, 46, 86–96. doi:10.2307/30040678

Grandey, A., Dickter, D.,&Sin, H.-P. (2004). The customer is not always right: Customer verbal aggression toward service employees. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 25, 397–418.

Gross, J. (1998). Antecedent- and response-focused emotion regulation: Divergent consequences for experience, expression, and physiology. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74(1), 224–237

Hair, J.F., Black, W.C., Babin, B.J., Anderson, R.E. (2010). Multivariate Data Analysis, seventh ed,. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs.

Hobfoll, S. E., & Freedy, J. (1993). Conservation of resources: A general stress theory applied to burnout. In W. B. Schaufeli, C. Maslach, & T. Marek (Eds.), Professional burnout: Recent developments in theory and research (pp. 115–133). Philadelphia, PA: Taylor & Francis.

Hochschild, A. R. (1983). The managed heart: Commercialization of human feeling. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Hu, L. &Bentler, P. M. (1999).Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives, Structural Equation Modeling, 6, 1-55.

Hülsheger, U. R. And Schewe A. F. (2011). On the Costs and Benefits of Emotional Labor: A Meta-Analysis of Three Decades of Research, Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, Vol. 16, No. 3, 361–389.

Jensen, S. M., & Luthans, F. (2006). Relationship between entrepreneurs’ psychological capital and their authentic leadership. Journal of Managerial Issues, 18, 254-273.

Lam, S., Chen, X., & Schaubroeck, J. (2002). Participative decision making and employee performance in different cultures: The moderating effects of allocentrism/idiocentrism and efficacy. Academy of Management Journal, 45, 905-914.

Locke, E., & Latham, G. (1990). A theory of goal setting and task performance. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Luthans, F. (2002a). The need for and meaning of positive organizational behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 23, 695-706.

Luthans, F. (2002b). Positive organizational behavior: Developing and managing psychological strengths. Academy of Management Executive, 16, 57-72.

Luthans, F., Avolio, B. J., Walumbwa, F., & Li, W. (2005). The psychological capital of Chinese workers: Exploring the relationship with performance. Management and Organization Review, 1, 247–269. doi:10.1111/j.1740-8784.2005.00011.x

Luthans, F., Zhu, W., & Avolio, B.J. (2006). The impact of efficacy on work attitudes across cultures. Journal of World Business, 41, 121-132.

Luthans, F., Vogelgesang, G. R., & Lester, P. B. (2006). Developing the psychological capital of resilience. Human Resource Development Review, 5, 25-44.

Luthans, F., Youssef, C. M., & Avolio, B. J. (2007). Psychological capital: Developing the human competitive edge. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Luthans, F., Avolio, B.J., Avey, J.B., & Norman, S.M. (2007). Psychological capital: Measurement and relationship with performance and satisfaction. Personnel Psychology, 60, 541-572.

Luthans, F., Avey, J., Avolio, B.J., Peterson, S.J. (2010). The development and resulting performance impact of positive psychological capital. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 21, 41-67.

Luthans, F., Avey, J.B., & Patera, J.L. (2008). Experimental analysis of a web-based training intervention to develop positive psychological capital. Academy of Management Learning and Education, 7, 209-221.

Luthans, F., Norman, S.M., & Hughes, L. (2006). Authentic leadership: A new approach to a new time. In R. Burke & C. Cooper (Eds.), Inspiring leaders (pp. 84-104). London: Routledge, Taylor & Francis.Masten, A. S. (2001). Ordinary magic: Resilience process in development. American Psychologist, 56,227-239.

Luthans, F., & Jensen, S.M. (2005). The linkage between psychological capital and commitment to organizational mission – A study of nurses. Journal of Nursing Administration, 35, 304-310.

Mc Chace, S., Nye, C., Wang, L., Jones, K. S., Chiu, C. (2013). Alleviating the Buden of Emotional Labor The Role of Social Sharing, Journal of Management, 39 (2), 392-415.

Masten, A. S., & Reed, M. J. (2002). Resilience in development. In C. R. Snyder & S. Lopez (Eds.), Handbook of positive psychology (pp. 74-88). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

May, D., Chan, A., Hodges, T., & Avolio, B. (2003). Developing the moral component of authentic leadership. Organizational Dynamics, 32, 247-260.

Morris, A. J. & Feldman, D. C. (1996). The Impact of Emotional Dissonance on Psychological Well-Being: the Importance of Role Internalisation as a Mediating Variable. Management Research News, 19 (8), 19–28.

Park, H.I.,O’ Rourke, E. & O’Brien, K. E. (2014). Extending Conservation of Resources Theory: The Interaction Between Emotional Labor and Interpersonal Influence, International Journal of Stress Management, Vol. 21, No. 4, 384–405.

Peterson, S.J., & Byron, K. (2008). Exploring the role of hope in job performance: Results from four studies. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 29, 785-803.

Richards, J.M., & Gross, J.J. (1999). Composure at any cost? The cognitive consequenses of emotion supression. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 25, 1033-1044

Schaubroeck, J. & Jones, J. R. (2000). Antecedents of Workplace Emotional Labor Dimensions and Moderators of Their Effects on Physical Symptoms. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 21, 163–183.

Seligman, M. (1998). Learned optimism. New York: Pocket Books.

Seligman, M. E. P. (1999). The president’s address. American Psychologist, 54, 559–562.

Shifren, K., & Hooker, K. (1995). Stability and change in optimism: A study among spouse caregivers. Experimental Aging Research, 21, 59-76.

Snyder, C.R. (1995). Managing for high hope. R&D Innovator, 4(6), 6-7.

Snyder, C.R., Rand, K.L., & Sigmon, D.R. (2002). Hope theory. In C.R. Snyder & S.J. Lopez (Eds.), Handbook of Positive Psychology (pp. 257-276). New York: Oxford University Press.

Snyder, C.R., Harris, C., Anderson, J.R., Holleran, S.A., Irving, L.M., Sigmon, S.T., Yoshinobu, L., Gibb, J., Langelle, C., & Harney, P. (1991). The will and the ways: Development and validation of an individual-differences measure of hope. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 570- 585.

Snyder, C.R. (1994). Hope and optimism. Encyclopedia of human behavior (Vol. 2, pp. 535-542). San Diego: Academic Press.

Snyder, C. R., Sympson, S. C., Ybasco, F. C., Borders, T. F., Babyak, M. A., & Higgins, R. L. (1996). Development and validation of the State Hope Scale. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 321-335.

Snyder, C.R. (2000). Handbook of hope. San Diego: Academic Press.

Snyder, C.R. (2002). Hope theory: Rainbows in the mind. Psychological Inquiry, 13, 249-275.

Stajkovic, A., & Luthans, F. (1998). Self-efficacy and work-related performance: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 124, 240-261.

Tierney, P., & Farmer, S. (2002). Creative self-efficacy: Its potential antecedents and relationship to creative performance. Academy of Management Journal, 45, 1137-1148.

Tolich, M.B. (1993). Alienating and liberating emotions at work: supermarket clerks’ performance of customer service, Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, Vol. 22, pp. 361-81.

Toor,S., Ofori, G. (2010). Psychological Capital as a Source of SustainableCompetitive Advantage for Organizations. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 341.

Totterdal, P. & Holman, D. (2003). Emotiona Regulation in Customer Service Roles: Testing a Model of Emotional Labor. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 8 (1), 55–73.

Wagnild, G., & Young, H. (1993). Development and psychometric evaluation of the Resilience Scale. Journal of Nursing Measurement, 1, 165-178.

Youssef, C.M., & Luthans, F. (2007). Positive organizational behavior in the workplace: The impact of hope, optimism, and resilience. Journal of Management, 33, 774-800.




How to Cite

Tamer, I. (2015). The Effect of Positive Psychological Capital on Emotional Labor. International Journal of Research in Business and Social Science (2147- 4478), 4(2), 20–34.