Brand Switching Behaviour of Muslim Consumers: Development of a Conceptual Model

  • Munazza Saeed
  • Ilhaamie Binti Abdul Ghani Azmi
Keywords: Brand Image, Brand Swithcing, Islam, Brand Equity, Malaysia


The purpose of this study is to develop a model to investigate the impact of brand image and religious beliefs on Muslim consumers switching intention. Moreover, it also intends to examine, how switching intention affect the customer equity of international branded products. This study seeks to expand the body of knowledge in consumer behaviour research with emphasis on religious beliefs (Islamic beliefs). The benefits that will be yielded from this study will not only provide guidelines to business researchers, but will also enhance the current understanding of Muslim consumers. It studies how the Muslim consumer’s brand switching behaviour is influenced by religious beliefs of Muslim consumers and image of a brand, yet previous studies have only attempted to understand brand switching without considering the religion specifically Islam.


Abou-Aish, E., Hassan, S., & Abosag, I. (2005). Macro-boycotting behavior drives: The Egyptian case. In Proceedings of the Academy of Marketing Annual Conference, Dublin Institute of Technology, UK.

Aish, E. M. A., Kortam, W. A., & Hassan, S. S. (2008). Using Agency Theory in Understanding Switching Behavior in B2B Service Industries “I”(No. 6).

Ajzen, I. (1985). From intentions to actions: A theory of planned behavior. InAction control (pp. 11-39). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

Bansal, H. S., & Taylor, S. F. (1999). The service provider switching model (spsm) a model of consumer switching behavior in the services industry.Journal of service Research, 2(2), 200-218. Doi: doi: 10.1177/109467059922007

Bansal, H. S., Irving, P. G., & Taylor, S. F. (2004). A three-component model of customer to service providers. Journal of the Academy of marketing Science, 32(3), 234-250. DOI: 10.1177/0092070304263332

Bansal, H. S., Taylor, S. F., & James, Y. S. (2005). “Migrating” to new service providers: Toward a unifying framework of consumers’ switching behaviors. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 33(1), 96-115. DOI: doi: 10.1177/0092070304267928

Bass, F. M. (1974). The theory of stochastic preference and brand switching.Journal of marketing Research, 1-20. DOI: 10.2307/3150989

Berry, L. L. (2000). Cultivating service brand equity. Journal of the Academy of marketing Science, 28(1), 128-137. DOI: 10.1177/0092070300281012

Bogue, D. J. (1977). A Migrant’s-Eye View of the Costs and Benefits of Migration to a Metropolis. Internal migration: A comparative perspective, 167-182.

Carlos Fandos Roig, J., Sanchez Garcia, J., Angel Moliner Tena, M., & Llorens Monzonis, J. (2006). Customer perceived value in banking services.International Journal of Bank Marketing, 24(5), 266-283. DOI: 10.1108/02652320610681729

Carter, M. J. (2013). Advancing Identity Theory Examining the Relationship between Activated Identities and Behavior in Different Social Contexts.Social Psychology Quarterly, 0190272513493095. DI: 10.1177/0190272513493095

Colgate, M., & Hedge, R. (2001). An investigation into the switching process in retail banking services. International Journal of Bank Marketing, 19(5), 201-212.

Essoo, N., & Dibb, S. (2004). Religious influences on shopping behaviour: An exploratory study. Journal of Marketing Management, 20(7-8), 683-712. DOI:

Fombrun, C., & Shanley, M. (1990). What's in a name? Reputation building and corporate strategy. Academy of management Journal, 33(2), 233-258. doi: 10.2307/256324

Foxall, G. R., Goldsmith, R. E., & Brown, S. (1998). Consumer psychology for marketing (Vol. 1). Cengage Learning EMEA.

Goldscheider, C. (1971). Population, modernization, and social structure.

Harrison and akeel (2006) “Effect of Danish Boycott patchy (Accessed on 11januray 2016).

Harrison and akeel (2006) “Effect of Danish Boycott patchy (Accessed on 11januray 2016).

Jafari, A. (2012). Islamic marketing: insights from a critical perspective.Journal of Islamic Marketing, 3(1), 22-34. DOI: 10.1108/17590831211206563

Jakarta Post, (2008) “Report: Malaysia's Mahathir urges Muslims to boycott” (Accessed on 11 January 2016)

James Sivalingam (2014) “we Don’t Fund Israel” (Accessed on 11 January 2016)

Johnson, B. R., Jang, S. J., Larson, D. B., & De Li, S. (2001). Does adolescent religious commitment matter? A reexamination of the effects of religiosity on delinquency. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency,38(1), 22-44. DOI: doi: 10.1177/0022427801038001002

Jones, M. A., Mothersbaugh, D. L., & Beatty, S. E. (2000). Switching barriers and repurchase intentions in services. Journal of retailing, 76(2), 259-274. DOI: 10.1016/S0022-4359(00)00024-5

Keaveney, S. M. (1995). Customer switching behavior in service industries: An exploratory study. The Journal of Marketing, 71-82. DOI: 10.2307/125207

Keller, K. L. (1993). Conceptualizing, measuring, and managing customer-based brand equity. the Journal of Marketing, 1-22.

LaBarbera, P. (1987). Consumer behavior and born again Christianity.Research in consumer behavior, 2, 193-222. DOI: 10.2307/1252054

Manstead, A. S. (1996). Situations, belongingness, attitudes, and culture: four lessons learned from social psychology.

Marshall, R., Huan, T. C. T., Xu, Y., & Nam, I. (2011). Extending prospect theory cross-culturally by examining switching behavior in consumer and business-to-business contexts. Journal of Business Research, 64(8), 871-878.

Morgan, M. S., & Dev, C. S. (1994). An empirical study of brand switching for a retail service. Journal of Retailing, 70(3), 267-282. DOI: 10.1016/0022-4359(94)90036-1

Nagar, K. (2009). Evaluating the effect of consumer sales promotions on brand loyal and brand switching segments. Vision: The Journal of Business Perspective, 13(4), 35-48. DOI: 10.1177/097226290901300404

Nimako, S. G., & Ntim, B. A. (2013). Construct specification and misspecification within the application of push-pull-mooring theory of switching behaviour. Journal of Business and Management Sciences, 1(5), 83-95. DOI: 10.12691/jbms-1-5-2

Nimako, S. G., & Winneba, K. G. (2012). Consumer switching behaviour: a theoretical review and research agenda. Research Journal of Social Science and Management, 2(3), 74-85.

Nimako, S. G., Ntim, B. A., & Mensah, A. F. (2014). Effect of mobile number portability adoption on consumer switching intention. International Journal of Marketing Studies, 6(2), 117.

Njite, D., Kim, W. G., & Kim, L. H. (2008). Theorizing consumer switching behaviour: A general systems theory approach. Journal of Quality Assurance In Hospitality & Tourism, 9(3), 185-218. DOI: 10.1080/15280080802412701

Roos, I. (1999). Switching processes in customer relationships. Journal of Service Research, 2(1), 68-85. DOI:10.1177/109467059921006

Sandikci, Ö. (2011). Researching Islamic marketing: past and future perspectives. Journal of Islamic Marketing, 2(3), 246-258. DOI: 10.1108/17590831111164778

Sandikci, Ö., & Ger, G. (2010). Veiling in style: how does a stigmatized practice become fashionable?. Journal of Consumer Research, 37(1), 15-36. DOI: 10.1086/649910

Sen, S., Gurhan –Chanli, Z. & Morwitz, V. (2001), Withhold consumption: Social Delima perspective on Consumer boycott. Journal of Consumer research, Vo. 28 No. 3, pp. 399 DOI:10.1086/323729

Shah Alam, S., Mohd, R., & Hisham, B. (2011). Is religiosity an important determinant on Muslim consumer behaviour in Malaysia?. Journal of Islamic Marketing, 2(1), 83-96. DOI: 10.1108/17590831111115268

Sharma, N., & Patterson, P. G. (2000). Switching costs, alternative attractiveness and experience as moderators of relationship commitment in professional, consumer services. International journal of service industry management, 11(5), 470-490. DOI:10.1108/09564230010360182

Shukla, P. (2004). Effect of product usage, satisfaction and involvement on brand switching behaviour. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics,16(4), DOI:10.1108/13555850410765285

Shweder, R. A. (1991). Thinking through cultures: Expeditions in cultural psychology. Harvard University Press.

Sood, J., & Nasu, Y. (1995). Religiosity and nationality: An exploratory study of their effect on consumer behavior in Japan and the United States. Journal of Business Research, 34(1), 1-9. DOI:10.1016/0148-2963(94)00015-7

Worthington Jr, E. L., Wade, N. G., Hight, T. L., Ripley, J. S., McCullough, M. E., Berry, J. W., ... & O'Connor, L. (2003). The Religious Commitment Inventory--10: Development, refinement, and validation of a brief scale for research and counseling. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 50(1), 84. DOI: 10.1037/0022-0167.50.1.84

Zeithaml, V. A., Berry, L. L., & Parasuraman, A. (1996). The behavioral consequences of service quality. the Journal of Marketing, 31-46.

Zimbardo, P.G., & Ruch, F. (1979). Psychology and life, (10th ed.). Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman & Company.


This research received support from the grant PG114/2013A awarded to the student at University of Malaya by IPPP.

How to Cite
Saeed, M., & Azmi, I. (2016). Brand Switching Behaviour of Muslim Consumers: Development of a Conceptual Model. International Journal of Research in Business and Social Science (2147-4478), 5(4), 31-39.